A computational model has been developed to study the mechanisms responsible for hot gas ingestion into the wheel-space cavity of a stationary high pressure turbine (HPT) cascade rig. Simulations were undertaken for the stationary rig described by Bunker et al. (2009, “An Investigation of Turbine Wheelspace Cooling Flow Interactions With a Transonic Hot Gas Path—Part I: Experimental Measurements,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59237) in a companion paper. The rig consists of five vanes, a wheel-space cavity, and five cylinders that represent the blockage due to the leading edge of the rotor airfoils. The experimental program investigated two cylinder diameters and three clocking positions for a nominal coolant flow rate. Comparisons are made between the computed and measured flow-fields for the smaller of the two cylinders. It is demonstrated that the circumferential variation of pressure established by the vane wake and leading edge bow wave results in an unstable shear layer over the rim seal axial gap (trench) that causes hot gases to ingest for a nominal coolant flow. Steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations did not capture this effect and it was determined that an unsteady analysis was required in order to match the experimental data. Favorable agreement is noted between the time-averaged computed and measured pressure distributions in the circumferential direction both upstream and downstream of the trench, as well as within the trench itself. Furthermore, it is noted that time-averaged buffer cavity effectiveness agrees to within 5% of the experimental data for the cases studied. The validated CFD model is then used to simulate the effect of rotation by rotating the cylinders and disk at rotational rate that scales with a typical engine. A sliding mesh interface is utilized to communicate data between the stator and rotor domains. The stationary cases tend to ingest past the first angel-wing for a nominal coolant flow condition, whereas the effect of rotation helps pressurize the cavity and is responsible for preventing hot gas from entering the buffer cavity.
An Investigation of Turbine Wheelspace Cooling Flow Interactions With a Transonic Hot Gas Path—Part II: CFD Simulations
Laskowski, G. M., Bunker, R. S., Bailey, J. C., Ledezma, G., Kapetanovic, S., Itzel, G. M., Sullivan, M. A., and Farrell, T. R. (April 25, 2011). "An Investigation of Turbine Wheelspace Cooling Flow Interactions With a Transonic Hot Gas Path—Part II: CFD Simulations." ASME. J. Turbomach. October 2011; 133(4): 041020. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4002410
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