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Schematic showing: ( a ) separated flow regions and ( b ) the secondary flo...
Published Online: August 18, 2022
Fig. 1 Schematic showing: ( a ) separated flow regions and ( b ) the secondary flow development in the pipe bend [ 2 ] More
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Location of the origin of the coordinate system and definition of planes A ...
Published Online: August 18, 2022
Fig. 4 Location of the origin of the coordinate system and definition of planes A and B used in the results and discussion part More
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The radial profile of the normalized axial velocity in the straight pipe at...
Published Online: August 18, 2022
Fig. 5 The radial profile of the normalized axial velocity in the straight pipe at Re = 60,000 compared with the experimental data reported by Benjamin et al. [ 27 ] at Re = 60,000 and Laufer [ 28 ] at Re = 50,000 More
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An overview of the computational mesh M3: ( a ) plan view of the surface me...
Published Online: August 18, 2022
Fig. 6 An overview of the computational mesh M3: ( a ) plan view of the surface mesh in the bend section and ( b ) cross-sectional view of the mesh More
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The normalized axial velocity at bend    α  =  0  deg    in plane A for Re ...
Published Online: August 18, 2022
Fig. 7 The normalized axial velocity at bend α = 0 deg in plane A for Re = 60,000 and R c / D = 2 for the investigated mesh density variants: dotted: M1; solid: M2; dashed: M3; dashed-dotted: M4 More
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The normalized axial velocity at bend    α  =  45  deg    in plane A for Re...
Published Online: August 18, 2022
Fig. 8 The normalized axial velocity at bend α = 45 deg in plane A for Re = 60,000 and R c / D = 2 for the investigated mesh density variants: dotted: M1; solid: M2; dashed: M3; dashed-dotted: M4 More
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The normalized axial velocity at bend    α  =  90  deg    in plane A for Re...
Published Online: August 18, 2022
Fig. 9 The normalized axial velocity at bend α = 90 deg in plane A for Re = 60,000 and R c / D = 2 for the investigated mesh density variants: dotted: M1; solid: M2; dashed: M3; dashed-dotted: M4 More
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The normalized axial velocity at locations: ( a )  y / D  = 2 and ( b )  y ...
Published Online: August 18, 2022
Fig. 10 The normalized axial velocity at locations: ( a ) y / D = 2 and ( b ) y / D = 3 behind the bend in plane A for Re = 60,000 and R c / D = 2 for the investigated mesh density variants: dotted: M1; solid: M2; dashed: M3; dashed-dotted: M4 More
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The normalized axial velocity in ( a ) plane A and ( b ) plane B at    α  =...
Published Online: August 18, 2022
Fig. 11 The normalized axial velocity in ( a ) plane A and ( b ) plane B at α = 0 deg , 45 deg , and 90 deg for Re = 60,000 and R c / D = 2 compared with the experimental data reported by Sudo et al. [ 11 ] and the numerical simulation by Tanaka et al. [ 20 ] and Kim et a... More
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The normalized axial velocity at ( a )    α  =  0  deg   , ( b )    α  =  4...
Published Online: August 18, 2022
Fig. 12 The normalized axial velocity at ( a ) α = 0 deg , ( b ) α = 45 deg , ( c ) α = 90 deg , and ( d ) the distance of 1 D downstream of the bend for Re = 60,000 in plane A for different values of the curvature ratio, R c / D More
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The non-dimensional physical properties: the magnitude of the velocity pert...
Published Online: August 18, 2022
Fig. 13 The non-dimensional physical properties: the magnitude of the velocity perturbation, the pressure, and the axial vorticity (from the leftmost, respectively) visualized at α = 0 deg for ( a ) R c / D = 1, ( b ) R c / D = 2, ( c ) R c / D = 3, and ( d ) R c / D =... More
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Secondary flow and non-dimensional physical properties: the magnitude of th...
Published Online: August 18, 2022
Fig. 14 Secondary flow and non-dimensional physical properties: the magnitude of the velocity perturbation, the pressure, and the axial vorticity (from the leftmost, respectively) visualized at α = 45 deg for ( a ) R c / D = 1, ( b ) R c / D = 2, ( c ) R c / D = 3, and ( d ... More
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Secondary flow and non-dimensional physical properties: the magnitude of th...
Published Online: August 18, 2022
Fig. 15 Secondary flow and non-dimensional physical properties: the magnitude of the velocity perturbation, the pressure, and the axial vorticity (from the leftmost, respectively) visualized at α = 90 deg for ( a ) R c / D = 1, ( b ) R c / D = 2, ( c ) R c / D = 3, and ( d ... More
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The iso-surfaces of the  Q -criterion for  Q  = 1: ( a )  R   c  / D  = 1, ...
Published Online: August 18, 2022
Fig. 16 The iso-surfaces of the Q -criterion for Q = 1: ( a ) R c / D = 1, ( b ) R c / D = 2, ( c ) R c / D = 3, and ( d ) R c / D = 4 at Re = 60,000 More
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Contours of the  Q  criterion plotted on pipe cross sections for ( a )  R  ...
Published Online: August 18, 2022
Fig. 17 Contours of the Q criterion plotted on pipe cross sections for ( a ) R c / D = 1, ( b ) R c / D = 2, ( c ) R c / D = 3, and ( d ) R c / D = 4 at Re = 60,000 More
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The normalized axial velocity for ( a )  R   c  / D  = 1, ( b )  R   c  / D...
Published Online: August 18, 2022
Fig. 18 The normalized axial velocity for ( a ) R c / D = 1, ( b ) R c / D = 2, and ( c ) R c / D = 4 at α = 0 deg , 45 deg , and 90 deg in plane A for different Reynolds numbers More
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Secondary flow and non-dimensional physical properties: the magnitude of th...
Published Online: August 18, 2022
Fig. 19 Secondary flow and non-dimensional physical properties: the magnitude of the velocity perturbation, the pressure, and the axial vorticity (from the leftmost, respectively) visualized at α = 45 deg for ( a ) Re = 10,000, ( b ) Re = 20,000, ( c ) Re = 40,000, and ( d ) Re = 60,000 f... More