Detailed studies of the deformation characteristics in axisymmetric upsetting and plane-strain side-pressing were attempted by the finite element method. Solutions were obtained up to a 33 percent reduction in height in axisymmetric upsetting and up to a 19 percent reduction in height in side-pressing, under conditions of complete sticking at the tool-workpiece interface. Load-displacement curves, plastic zone development, and strain and stress distributions were presented, and some of the computed solutions were compared with those found experimentally.

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