Drug-resistant hypertensive patients may be treated by mechanical stimulation of stretch-sensitive baroreceptors located in the sinus of carotid arteries. To evaluate the efficacy of endovascular devices to stretch the carotid sinus such that the induced strain might trigger baroreceptors to increase action potential firing rate and thereby reduce systemic blood pressure, numerical simulations were conducted of devices deployed in subject-specific carotid models. Two models were chosen—a typical physiologic carotid and a diminutive atypical physiologic model representing a clinically worst case scenario—to evaluate the effects of device deployment in normal and extreme cases, respectively. Based on the anatomical dimensions of the carotids, two different device sizes were chosen out of five total device sizes available. A fluid structure interaction (FSI) simulation methodology with contact surface between the device and the arterial wall was implemented for resolving the stresses and strains induced by device deployment. Results indicate that device deployment in the carotid sinus of the physiologic model induces an increase of 2.5% and 7.5% in circumferential and longitudinal wall stretch, respectively, and a maximum of 54% increase in von Mises arterial stress at the sinus wall baroreceptor region. The second device, deployed in the diminutive carotid model, induces an increase of 6% in both circumferential and longitudinal stretch and a 50% maximum increase in von Mises stress at the sinus wall baroreceptor region. Device deployment has a minimal effect on blood-flow patterns, indicating that it does not adversely affect carotid bifurcation hemodynamics in the physiologic model. In the smaller carotid model, deployment of the device lowers wall shear stress at sinus by 16% while accelerating flow entering the external carotid artery branch. Our FSI simulations of carotid arteries with deployed device show that the device induces localized increase in wall stretch at the sinus, suggesting that this will activate baroreceptors and subsequently may control hypertension in drug-resistant hypertensive patients, with no consequential deleterious effects on the carotid sinus hemodynamics.
Fluid Structure Interaction With Contact Surface Methodology for Evaluation of Endovascular Carotid Implants for Drug-Resistant Hypertension Treatment
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Peter, D. A., Alemu, Y., Xenos, M., Weisberg, O., Avneri, I., Eshkol, M., Oren, T., Elazar, M., Assaf, Y., and Bluestein, D. (April 12, 2012). "Fluid Structure Interaction With Contact Surface Methodology for Evaluation of Endovascular Carotid Implants for Drug-Resistant Hypertension Treatment." ASME. J Biomech Eng. April 2012; 134(4): 041001. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4006339
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