Review Article

Soil Models and Vehicle System Dynamics

[+] Author and Article Information
Ulysses Contreras

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
University of Illinois at Chicago,
842 West Taylor Street,
Chicago, IL 60607

Guangbu Li

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Normal University,
100 Guilin Road,
Shanghai, 200234China

Craig D. Foster

Department of Civil and Materials Engineering,
University of Illinois at Chicago,
842 West Taylor Street,
Chicago, IL 60607

Ahmed A. Shabana

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
University of Illinois at Chicago,
842 West Taylor Street,
Chicago, IL 60607

Michael D. Letherwood

6501 East 11 Mile Road,
Warren, MI 48397-5000

Manuscript received February 21, 2012; final manuscript received May 20, 2013; published online August 27, 2013. Editor: Harry Dankowicz.This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Appl. Mech. Rev 65(4), 040802 (Aug 27, 2013) (21 pages) Paper No: AMR-12-1012; doi: 10.1115/1.4024759 History: Received February 21, 2012; Revised May 20, 2013

The mechanical behavior of soils may be approximated using different models that depend on particular soil characteristics and simplifying assumptions. For this reason, researchers have proposed and expounded upon a large number of constitutive models and approaches that describe various aspects of soil behavior. However, there are few material models capable of predicting the behavior of soils for engineering applications and are at the same time appropriate for implementation into finite element (FE) and multibody system (MBS) algorithms. This paper presents a survey of some of the commonly used continuum-based soil models. The aim is to provide a summary of continuum-based soil models and examine their suitability for integration with the large-displacement FE absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) and MBS algorithms. Special emphasis is placed on the formulation of soils used in conjunction with vehicle dynamics models. The implementation of these soil models in MBS algorithms used in the analysis of complex vehicle systems is also discussed. Because semiempirical terramechanics soil models are currently the most widely used to study vehicle/soil interaction, a review of classical terramechanics models is presented in order to be able to explain the modes of displacements that are not captured by these simpler models. Other methods such as the particle-based and mesh-free models are also briefly reviewed. A Cam–Clay soil model is used in this paper to explain how such continuum-mechanics based soil models can be implemented in FE/MBS algorithms.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Response of soil with respect to shearing. (Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc. from Ref. [1].)

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Fig. 2

Stress at a point R units away from the point load. (Reprinted by permission of Elsevier from Ref. [3].)

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Fig. 3

Contact area under a circular loading area. (Reprinted by permission of Elsevier from Ref. [3].)

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Fig. 4

Stress at a point due to a rectangular loading area. (Reprinted by permission of Elsevier from Ref. [3].)

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Fig. 5

Idealized flexible track and terrain interaction. (Reprinted by permission of Elsevier from Ref. [3].)

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Fig. 6

General yield function and return mapping

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Fig. 8

The modified Cam–Clay model [41]

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Fig. 7

Yield surfaces in principal stress space [32]

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Fig. 9

Yield surface for Cap model. (Reprinted by permission of John Wiley and Sons from Ref. [70].)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Yield surface of the extended Cap model in terms of net stress and matric suction. (Reprinted by permission of John Wiley and Sons from Ref. [70].)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Tracked vehicle model



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