Review Articles

Gyrostabilizer Vehicular Technology

[+] Author and Article Information
Nicholas C. Townsend, Ramanand A. Shenoi

Research Fellow Faculty of Engineering and the Environment,  University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UKe-mail: nick@soton.ac.ukLloyds Register/Royal Academy of Engineering Research Professor of Lightweight Structures Head of Fluid Structure Interactions Research Group Faculty of Engineering and the Environment,  University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK e-mail: R.A.Shenoi@soton.ac.uk

Appl. Mech. Rev 64(1), 010801 (Sep 26, 2011) (14 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004837 History: Received July 20, 2010; Revised July 19, 2011; Published September 26, 2011; Online September 26, 2011

This paper examines the current state of gyrostabilizer vehicular technology. With no previous description of the wide range and variety of gyrostabilizer technology, this paper provides a review of the current state of the art. This includes a detailed examination of gyrostabilizer vehicular systems, dynamics and control. The present review first describes the historical development of gyroscopic systems before going on to describe the various system characteristics, including an overview of gyrostabilizer vehicular applications and system designs for land, sea and spacecraft. The equations of motion for generic gyroscopic systems are derived following momentum (Newton-Euler) and energy (Lagrange) based approaches and examples provided. The derivations are made generically for individual components, enabling direct application for a wide variety of systems. In the final section, a review of gyrostabilizer control strategies is presented and the remaining challenges are discussed. Gyrostabilizer systems are anticipated to become more widely adopted as they provide an effective means of motion control with several significant advantages for land, sea and spacecraft. (101 references).

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Motion restrictions and actuations of a spinning wheel

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Figure 2

Example single gimbal gyrostabilizer arrangements with nonparallel gimbal axes ((a): Skew arrangement (3 and 4 gyroarrangements under certain skew angles become symmetric type arrangements) (b): 3 gyro-arrangement (c): 4 gyro-arrangement or ‘pyramid type’)

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Figure 3

Example single gimbal gyrostabilizer arrangements with parallel gimbal axes ((a): Twin type (equal and opposite spin and rotation directions) (b): Multiple twin type (1 axis) (c): Multiple twin type (3 axis))

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Figure 4

Wheeled gyrostabilizer system developments [8] [30] [10] (Images 30, 69, 70)

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Figure 5

Marine gyrostabilizer system developments [21] [37] [59] [14] [60] [58] [57](Images 14, 57, 59, 78–80)

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Figure 6

Space gyrostabilizer system developments [1][83][12] (Images 12, 82, 83)

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Figure 7

Coordinate frame definitions

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Figure 8

A gyrostabilized inverted pendulum mobile robot

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Figure 9

A single-gimbal, single-flywheel, single-wheel gyroscopically stabilized robot

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Figure 10

Gyrostabilizer Control Strategies

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Figure 11

Excitation roll moment to roll angle frequency response estimates for an unstabilized and gyroscopically roll stabilized 10 m boat

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Figure 12

Motion response simulations of a gyroscopically roll stabilized 10m boat in a JONSWAP wave spectrum (Significant wave height = 1m, Average wave period = 8s) using rate based control with and without integral control, control started after 10 seconds ((a): Precession angles (b): Roll angles)



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