Nonlinear Components of Ship Wake Waves

[+] Author and Article Information
Tarmo Soomere

Centre for Nonlinear Studies,  Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 21, 12618 Tallinn, Estoniasoomere@cs.ioc.ee

Appl. Mech. Rev 60(3), 120-138 (May 01, 2007) (19 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2730847 History:

Nonlinear components of wakes from large high-speed ships at times carry a substantial part of the wake energy and behave completely differently compared to the classical Kelvin wave system. This overview makes an attempt to summarize the descriptions of nonlinear parts of a ship’s wake. For completeness, also the basic properties of the Kelvin wake are sketched. The central topic is the generation of solitons by ship motion both in channels and in unbounded sea areas. The discussion is mostly limited to disturbances on the surface of nonstratified water. The optional nonlinear components of the ship wake such as the very narrow V-like wake components, packets of monochromatic waves, ship-generated depression areas, and supercritical bores are also discussed. Specific features of solitonic ship waves and their interactions have numerous applications in naval and coastal engineering, and in adjacent areas of applied mechanics. An overview of the practical use of certain properties of phase shifts, and particularly high wave humps occurring during Mach reflection and nonlinear interaction of solitons in decreasing the wave resistance at supercritical speeds and in the freak wave theory, is also presented. The final part of the paper describes the results of studies of far-field properties of nonlinear wakes and possible consequences of the increase of local hydrodynamic activity. There are 263 references cited in this review article.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Topics: Waves , Wakes , Ships , Solitons
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Figure 1

Pattern of wave crests generated by a point pressure disturbance moving over deep water: (1) diverging waves; (2) transversal waves

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Figure 2

Scheme of the Kelvin wedge for water waves. The supercritical wedge is plotted for Fh=3.

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Figure 3

Dependence of the half-angle of the Kelvin wedge on the Froude number

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Figure 4

Sketch of linear and nonlinear elements of ship wakes

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Figure 5

Idealized patterns of crests of incoming solitons (bold lines), their position in the absence of interaction (dashed lines), and the interaction soliton (bold dashed line) corresponding to the negative phase shift case

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Figure 6

Pressure fluctuations caused by the wake of a large high-speed ship near the western coast of Aegna (Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea). The first wave group has the maximum height of 45cm, the second group of 25cm. The highest is the third group (52cm). The significant height of the natural wave background is about 30cm(60).

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Figure 7

Comparison of the average energy and power of ship wakes and wind waves in annual mean and during summer seasons for five measurement sites at the coasts of Tallinn Bay



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