Coaxial electrospinning is a novel technique that allows the fabrication of composite nanofibers in a core-shell structure. This technique can be used to optimize the biological properties of a natural polymer (i.e. gelatin) and the mechanical properties of a synthetic polymer (i.e. polyvinyl alcohol). In this study, we fabricated coaxial nanofibers of gelatin and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for use in cardiovascular tissue engineering. Cellular adhesion and proliferation of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) is determined on coaxial nanofibers fabricated from a 1:1 and 3:1 (gelatin:PVA volumetric flow rate ratios), as well as nanofibers composed solely of gelatin or PVA. In addition, cellular migration on the coaxial nanofibers, gelatin nanofibers, and PVA nanofibers is determined for both endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells.

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