A multi degree of freedom skeletal muscle system stimulated via optical control is presented. These millimeter-scale, optically excitable 3D skeletal muscle bio-actuators are created by culturing genetically modified precursory muscle cells that are activated with light: optogenetics. These muscle bio-actuators are networked together to create a distributed muscle system. Muscle systems can manipulate loads having no fixed joint. These types of loads include shoulders, the mouth, and the jaw.
- Bioengineering Division
Distributed Live Muscle Actuators Controlled by Optical Stimuli
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Neal, D, Sakar, MS, & Asada, HH. "Distributed Live Muscle Actuators Controlled by Optical Stimuli." Proceedings of the ASME 2013 Summer Bioengineering Conference. Volume 1A: Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms; Active and Reactive Soft Matter; Atherosclerosis; BioFluid Mechanics; Education; Biotransport Phenomena; Bone, Joint and Spine Mechanics; Brain Injury; Cardiac Mechanics; Cardiovascular Devices, Fluids and Imaging; Cartilage and Disc Mechanics; Cell and Tissue Engineering; Cerebral Aneurysms; Computational Biofluid Dynamics; Device Design, Human Dynamics, and Rehabilitation; Drug Delivery and Disease Treatment; Engineered Cellular Environments. Sunriver, Oregon, USA. June 26–29, 2013. V01AT02A007. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2013-14851
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