The advent of blood recirculating devices and cardiovascular implants (e.g. ventricular assist devices and prosthetic heart valves) has motivated research efforts towards a better understanding of blood damage, hemolysis, and chronic platelet activation that these devices induce. Because of the latter, patients with these classes of implants still develop thromboembolic complications that expose them to a greater risk of cardioembolic stroke and mandate life-long anticoagulant drug regimen with its inherent risks.

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