There are fundamental differences in the size and performance of male and female hearts. Even after adjustments for height and body surface area, the left ventricle of a healthy male is larger in both volume and mass [1]. There are differences in contractile performance between papillary muscle from male and female rats with male rats showing slower responses in both isometric and isotonic tests [2]. It is less clear, however, whether the underlying structure or mechanical properties vary between sexes as well. Of particular interest to us is the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the ventricular wall, which provides structural stability to the heart. This matrix can be isolated by perfusion decellularization [3].

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