Recent years have seen the rapid development of various upper limb devices, especially in prosthetic [1] and exoskeleton devices [2–5]. Although the capabilities of these devices have been greatly increased, the effect of these devices in real world applications is still being tested. In exoskeletons and prostheses, the majority of development has been focused on lower and upper extremity devices, many times excluding the effects of torso movement. The torso contributes a significant amount of movement in the performance of tasks, and the spine is prone to injury if overexerted [6]. For continued development and expansion of these devices the movements of the torso must be considered. This paper presents work done in the development of functional joint centers of the spine to be used in upper body modeling for development and testing of prostheses and exoskeletons.

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