Cardiac tissue engineering studies have demonstrated the importance of revascularization in engineered grafts for successful implantation and regeneration [1]. Understanding the myocardium’s complex cellular organization and the interactions between the major cardiac cell types (cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and cardiac fibroblasts) is critical for revascularization. Our previous studies have shown the importance of cardiomyocyte-endothelial interactions [2]. However, there is limited information available on endothelial-fibroblast interactions. We and others have previously observed that during capillary assembly, fibroblasts provide chemical signaling via expression of growth factors [3, 4]. In addition, fibroblasts may also regulate angiogenesis through alterations to the mechanical environment via myocardial remodeling, including matrix degradation and deposition, and tissue contraction. Changes to the extracellular mechanical enviroment may lead to changes in basic cell functions such as proliferation, apoptosis, and growth factor expression.

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