Since Blix noted that force varies with muscle length , many investigators have worked to characterize the passive length-tension properties of skeletal muscle in the tissue’s fiber direction . However, few reports have examined the properties of muscle in either transverse extension or in longitudinal shear [3–4]. Material properties in these three directions are needed to fully characterize computational models, which generally describe muscle as being transversely isotropic, hyperelastic, and isovolumetric [3–6]. Further, previous studies reporting tri-planar material properties indicate that muscle tissue is stiffer in the transverse direction compared to the longitudinal direction [3–4]. This counters conventional notions of transversely isotropic materials, which are generally stiffer in the fiber direction.
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Tensile Material Properties of Skeletal Muscle Tissue in Longitudinal and Transverse Directions
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Morrow, DA, Haut Donahue, TL, Odegard, GM, & Kaufman, KR. "Tensile Material Properties of Skeletal Muscle Tissue in Longitudinal and Transverse Directions." Proceedings of the ASME 2008 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2008 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Parts A and B. Marco Island, Florida, USA. June 25–29, 2008. pp. 1027-1028. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2008-193043
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