Intravascular interventions such as balloon embolectomy are effective in removing arterial and venous thrombi and emboli but lead to endothelial injury. The clinical sequelae of this injury include intimal hyperplasia and renewed clot formation. Changes in endothelial permeability after intravascular intervention may influence the development of intimal hyperplasia. To assess the extent and type of injury engendered by the Fogarty embolectomy catheter, the permeability of the endothelium after sham embolectomy (catheter withdrawal in the absence of a thrombus or thrombus model) was measured in porcine carotid arteries. The maximum shear force required for catheter withdrawal was also measured. The changes in permeability resulting from a prototype textured balloon catheter (Applied Medical, Laguna Hills, CA) were measured for comparison to the Fogarty catheter. While the textured balloon showed a distinct pattern of increased permeability and required significantly more force to withdraw at a set balloon pressure than a Fogarty balloon catheter (p < 0.02), there was no difference in permeability after three balloon inflation and removal cycles. This study demonstrates useful techniques for comparing catheter designs which may be clinically relevant to intimal hyperplasia and rethrombosis after intravascular intervention.

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