The development of improved orthopedic implants, diagnostic tools and surgical procedures for clinicians requires a better understanding of the human musculoskeletal system and joint kinematics. Mathematical models continue to play an important role in advancing the understanding of musculoskeletal system performance. At the core of any useful mathematical model is a sound representation of the fundamental mechanics of the system and reliable, repeatable measurements of the necessary physical parameters. For joint models, essential data include the three dimensional geometry of the articulating surfaces and ligament insertion sites, the articulating cartilage thickness, and material properties of the different tissues.

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