Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), is defined as a type of acquired brain injury that occurs upon the interaction of the human head with blast-generated high-pressure shockwaves. Lack of experimental studies due to moral issues, have motivated the researchers to employ computational methods to study the bTBI mechanisms. Accordingly, a nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis was employed to study the interaction of both unprotected and protected head models with explosion pressure waves. The head was exposed to the incoming shockwaves from front, back, and side directions. The main goal was to examine the effects of head protection tools and the direction of blast waves on the tissue and kinematical responses of the brain. Generation, propagation, and interactions of blast waves with the head were modeled using an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method and a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) coupling algorithm. The FE simulations were performed using Ls-Dyna, a transient, nonlinear FE code. Side blast predicted the highest mechanical responses for the brain. Moreover, the protection assemblies showed to significantly alter the blast flow mechanics. Use of faceshield was also observed to be highly effective in the front blast due to hindering of shockwaves.

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