Use of embolic agents is currently an accepted treatment modality among neurointerventional clinicians in order to completely occlude abnormal shunts in the cerebral vasculature known as arteriovenous malformations or AVMs. The first cyanoacrylate polymer recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in humans is n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA). In order to control the polymerization time of NBCA, as well as to opacify the mixture for angiographic visualization, an iodized poppyseed oil-based contrast agent (Lipiodol) is added to the NBCA. Glacial acetic acid is also used to delay polymerization further by decreasing the pH of the mixture.

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