The accurate prediction of high cycle fatigue (HCF) is becoming one of the key technologies in the design process of state-of-the-art axial compressors. If they are not properly designed, both rotor blades and stator vanes can be damaged. There are two main factors to cause HCF. One is low engine order (LEO) and the other is high engine order (HEO) excitation by fluid force associated with adjacent rotor-stator interaction. For the front stages of axial compressors for power generations and aero engines, the inlet Mach number of a rotor tip typically exceeds the speed of sound and strong shock waves tend to be induced. This can be the source of HEO excitation fluid force, and adjacent stator vanes are sometimes severely damaged. Thus, the aim of this study is to establish an efficient method for predicting the vibration response in this type of problem with high accuracy. To achieve this, numerical investigations are carried out by one-way fluid structure interaction (FSI) simulation. To validate the accuracy of FSI simulation, experiments are also conducted using a gas turbine engine for power generation. In the experiment, the vibration level is measured with strain gauges mounted on the surface of stator vanes and the data are compared with the predicted results.
In the first part of the study, efficient prediction methods of excitation fluid force on the stator vane are investigated by time transformation (TT) and harmonic balance (HB) methods. Their accuracies are evaluated by comparing the results with those calculated by transient rotor stator (TRS) simulation whose pitch ratio is one between rotor and stator computational domains. It is found that the TT method can accurately predict the excitation fluid force with lower computation load even when there are pitch differences between rotor and stator regions.
In the second part of the study, forced response analyses are carried out using the excitation fluid force obtained in the unsteady flow simulation. To obtain the total damping of the system, both hammering test and flutter simulations are carried out. Computed results are validated with experimental data and it is found that the predicted vibration level is in good agreement with experimental results.
Through this study, the effectiveness of one-way FSI simulation is confirmed for this type of forced response prediction. By utilizing the combination of efficient unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods and harmonic response analysis, vibration amplitude can be predicted accurately and efficiently.