While many theoretical and numerical studies have been carried out to study blast induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), validation of simulation results is still a concern due to moral issues and experimental constraints. Shock-tubes are one of the major means for replicating blast waves in a controlled medium. North Dakota State University Shock-tube (NDSUST) has been designed to simulate the blast shockwaves in an attempt to study and investigate bTBI. However, accurate replication of a blast profile in terms of the impulse and overpressure is highly dependent on the geometrical features of the shock-tube. To this end, numerical methods such as computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis can help to evaluate and increase the efficiency of the current shock-tubes. The NDSUST contains three major parts, namely, driver (the high pressure container), driven cone, and the chamber to setup the head model. The driver and driven cone are separated by layers of Mylar membrane. Shockwaves are defined by three pressure-time characteristics; positive phase (positive impulse), negative phase (negative impulse), and maximum pressure (overpressure). While the current NDSUST simulated most shockwave characteristics accurately, the negative impulse was observed to be considerably long. The diameter of Mylar membrane interface, the volume of the deriver, and the chamber room cross-section connected to the driven cone, were considered as possible parameters affecting the efficiency of the shock-tube. Accordingly, NDSUST was modeled in ANSYS CFX using its actual dimensions. A transient CFD analysis was carried out using ANSYS CFX to simulate the turbulent, supersonic, and compressible flow upon rupture of the Mylar membrane in order to study the pressure wave propagation inside the shock-tube. No-slip boundary conditions were chosen for the shock-tube walls. Driver and driven sections were considered as two separate domains connected using an interface. The shockwave was generated by setting the driver and driven sections at high and low pressures, respectively and running the simulation for a total time of 1 second. The primary results revealed that the current cross-section at the interface of the driven cone and the square chamber caused the pressure disruption (pressure oscillation) upon entrance of the pressure waves into the chamber room. In addition, it was concluded that the driver volume would affect the negative impulse’s duration and the negative peak pressure.
- Fluids Engineering Division
Understanding the Mechanics of Blast Pressure Waves Inside a Shock-Tube: Effects of Geometry Optimization on the Blast Profile
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Eslaminejad, A, Sarvghad-Moghaddam, H, Ziejewski, M, & Karami, G. "Understanding the Mechanics of Blast Pressure Waves Inside a Shock-Tube: Effects of Geometry Optimization on the Blast Profile." Proceedings of the ASME 2017 Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting. Volume 1C, Symposia: Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flows; Gas and Liquid-Solid Two-Phase Flows; Numerical Methods for Multiphase Flow; Turbulent Flows: Issues and Perspectives; Flow Applications in Aerospace; Fluid Power; Bio-Inspired Fluid Mechanics; Flow Manipulation and Active Control; Fundamental Issues and Perspectives in Fluid Mechanics; Transport Phenomena in Energy Conversion From Clean and Sustainable Resources; Transport Phenomena in Materials Processing and Manufacturing Processes. Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA. July 30–August 3, 2017. V01CT23A017. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/FEDSM2017-69420
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