For more than 27 years, implanted vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) devices, with electric current outputs in the 1 to 3.5 mA range, have been developed for many health care applications, including epilepsy and heart disease [1]. Mechanical compression approaches for VNS were administered under surgical conditions, using forceps, in the 1800’s [2]. Outcomes such as Electrocardiogram (ECG) data, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Also, non-invasive (NI) mechanical compression of the vagus nerve for various nervous system disorders using hand, thumb, finger and belt pressure was popular in the 1800’s [3]. Cyberonics (now LivaNova) received the first FDA clearance for a surgically implanted electrical VNS device to treat refractory epilepsy in 1997.

This content is only available via PDF.