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BOOK REVIEWS

Appl. Mech. Rev. 2004;57(1):B1. doi:10.1115/1.1641771.
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Abstract
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Appl. Mech. Rev. 2004;57(1):B1-B2. doi:10.1115/1.1641772.
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Appl. Mech. Rev. 2004;57(1):B2. doi:10.1115/1.1641773.
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Appl. Mech. Rev. 2004;57(1):B3-B4. doi:10.1115/1.1641776.
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Topics: Optimal control
Appl. Mech. Rev. 2004;57(1):B4. doi:10.1115/1.1641777.
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Abstract

REVIEW ARTICLES

Appl. Mech. Rev. 2004;57(1):1-21. doi:10.1115/1.1584065.

The article presents a review of the theory of reliability and its use for design code making procedures based on the probabilistic approach. Principles of structural safety in design code making are considered. To do so, the basic principles of the limit state methods in the form of partial factors and ways of their development are analyzed. The problem of manufactured structures or specimen reliability evaluation is discussed according to the control test results. Classification of loads and actions, which were adopted during the code making, is presented. Descriptions of the load combinations are considered. Evaluation of the risk in civil engineering is observed and estimations of the acceptable and optimal risk are discussed. Development of reliability based design principles is also presented. Based on review of preceding work, general requirements for probabilistic codes are described and the critical observations of the modern methods of the analysis of the failure probability are presented. This review article cites 125 references.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Appl. Mech. Rev. 2004;57(1):23-46. doi:10.1115/1.1584064.

This review article gives an overview of the new and quickly developing field of shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators in smart structures. The focus is on the aspects of modeling and simulation of such structures, a task that goes beyond classical modeling approaches as it has to combine constitutive modeling with structural and control aspects in a highly interdisciplinary way. We review developments in each of these fields, trying to combine them into a smooth picture of how to treat the problem efficiently. After a discussion of modeling aspects with particular regard to actuator applications, the simulation of standard feedback control methods is demonstrated. Subsequently, model based methods from optimal control theory are presented, accounting for the strongly nonlinear and hysteretic material behavior of SMAs. Real-time optimal control methods are introduced and, finally, aspects of finite element implementation of an SMA actuator model are discussed and illustrated by the simulation of an adaptive aircraft wing. This review article cites 155 references.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Appl. Mech. Rev. 2004;57(1):47-76. doi:10.1115/1.1583758.

Embryonic cells have the remarkable ability to spontaneously reposition themselves with respect to other cells in an aggregate, an ability that is central to embryo morphogenesis, many disease processes, wound healing, and tissue engineering. In these rearrangements, cells of two or more histological types in a heterotypic aggregate can sort, mix or form checkerboard patterns and contacting fragments of different homogeneous tissues can spread over or engulf one another. In this article, the experimental literature on cell and tissue reorganization is summarized, the main sub-cellular structural components are identified and hypotheses about how these components interact to drive specific patterns of rearrangement are outlined. Making extensive use of tables, the article then maps out the interplay between experiments, theories, ultrastructural discoveries and computer models in the advancement of the field. The article summarizes the main computational approaches, including cell and sub-cellular lattices, body centric, boundary vertex and finite element models. The principle of operation, advantages and disadvantages of each approach is discussed, and the contributions of representative papers noted. Strong commonalities are found in the physical basis of the models and in the predictions they make. Computational models provide an important ongoing complement to experimental and theoretical studies. This review article cites 154 references.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Appl. Mech. Rev. 2004;57(1):77-93. doi:10.1115/1.1584063.

Bed forms in channels result from the interaction between sediment transport, turbulence and gravitational settling. They document mechanisms of self-organization between flow structures and the developing structure of the bed. It is shown that these mechanisms can be characterized by length scales of the sediment, the bed form and the flow structure. Three types of interaction can be distinguished: 1) The first type of mechanisms can be observed at beds of sediment with grain diameter smaller than the typical structural dimension of turbulence. It is shown how with increasing hydraulic loading of the bed a hydraulically smooth surface develops structures, which turn from “orange peel” to stripe and arrowhead patterns and finally into ripples. This group of bed forms is limited to a grain diameter of d+=12.5 in viscous units. In the regime of the stripe structures drag reduction occurs. 2) If grains or bed forms reach a height, which leads to separation, a completely different regime prevails, which is determined by the self-organization of separation zones. A prominent example for these bed forms are dunes. 3) Demixing processes, secondary flows and roughness contrasts finally lead to the development of longitudinal and transverse banks. All three mechanisms are explained on the basis of kinematic models and documented by experimental data. Emphasis is put on the two-dimensionalization of bed forms in a highly 3-dimensional (3D) turbulent flow, which is traced back to the self organization of vortex systems. This review article contains 55 references.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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