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RETROSPECTIVE

Appl. Mech. Rev. 2002;55(6):R45-R54. doi:10.1115/1.1495523.

Biot MA and Bisplinghoff RL (1944), Dynamic loads on airplane structures during landing, NACA Report ARRL4127.Williams D (1945), Dynamic loads in aeroplanes under given impulsive loads with particular reference to landing and gust loads on a large flying boat, Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, UK, Reports SMR 3309 and 3316.Mead DJ (1951), The damping and dynamic response of aeroplane structures, Thesis submitted for the DCAe degree, College of Aeronautics, Cranfield, Bedford (UK).Küssner HG (1929), Schwingungen von Flugzeugflügeln, Jahrbuch der deutscher Versuchsanstalt für Luftfahrt (especially Section E3 Einfluss der Baustoff-Dämpfung, pp 319–320).Kimball  AL and Lovell  DE (1927),  Internal friction in solids, Phys. Rev. PHRVAO30, 948.phrPHRVAO0031-899XBecker E and Foppl O (1928), Dauerversuche zur Bestimming der Festigkeitseigenschaften, Beziehungen zwischen Baustoffdämpfung und Verformungsgeschwindigkeit, VDU Forschunghaft No 304.Crandall  SH (1970),  The role of damping in vibration theory, J. Sound Vib. JSVIAG11, 3–18.jsuJSVIAG0022-460XUngar EE (1964), Energy dissipation at structural joints: Mechanisms and magnitudes, USAF Report AFFDL-TDR-64-98.Mead DJ (1979), Prediction of the structural damping of a vibrating stiffened plate, AGARD Conf Proc No 277 Damping Effects in Aerospace Structures, 2.1–2.9.Pian THH and Hallowell Jr FC (1952), Structural damping in a simple built-up beam, Proc of 1st US National Congress of Applied Mechanics, New York: ASME, 97–102.Beards  CF (1985),  Damping in structural joints, Shock Vib. Dig. SHVDAN17, 17–20.9vpSHVDAN0583-1024Oberst H and Frankenfeld K (1952), Über die Dämpfung der Biegeschwingungen dünner Bleche durch fest haftende Beläge, I. Acustica 2, Akustische Beihefte 4 , 181–194.Mead  DJ (1960),  The effect of a damping compound on jet-efflux excited vibration, Aircraft Eng ZZZZZZ32, 64–72.Johnson  CD and Kienholz  DA (1982),  Finite element prediction of damping in structures with constrained viscoelastic layers, AIAA J. AIAJAH20, 1284–1290.aiaAIAJAH0001-1452Markus S, Oravsky V, and Simkova O (1977), Damped Flexural Vibrations of Layered Beams (in Slovak, Timene priecne kmitanie vrstnenych noskinov), Publishing House VEDA, Bratislava.Mentel TJ (1959), Damping of simplified configurations with additives and interfaces, WADC-Univ of Minnesota Conf on Acoustic Fatigue, USAF WADC Tech Report 59–676.Eaton DCG and Mead DJ (1961), Interface damping at riveted joints, Part I: Theoretical analysis, USAF ASD Tech Report 61–467, Part I.Ross D, Kerwin EM, and Ungar EE (1960), Damping of flexural vibrations by means of viscoelastic laminae, Structural Damping, Ch 3, J Ruzicka (ed), Pergamon Press, New York.Parfitt D and Lambeth D (c 1960), Unpublished internal report, Dept of Physics, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, UK.Plunkett  R and Lee  CT (1970),  Length optimisation for constrained viscoelastic layer damping, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. JASMAN48, 150–161.jasJASMAN0001-4966Austin EM and Inman DJ (2000), Errors in damping predictions due to kinematic assumptions for sandwich beams, Structural Dynamics-Recent Advances, Proc of 7th Int Conf, Southampton, 515–526.DiTaranto  RA (1965),  Theory of the vibratory bending of a damped sandwich layer in non-sinusoidal modes, Trans. ASME J. Appl. Mech. JAMCAV87 SerE, 881–886.97dJAMCAV0021-8936Mead  DJ and Markus  S (1970),  Loss factors and resonant frequencies of encastre damped sandwich beams, J. Sound Vib. JSVIAG12, 99–112.jsuJSVIAG0022-460XYan  M-J and Dowell  EH (1972),  Governing equations for vibrating constrained layer damping of sandwich beams and plates, ASME J. Appl. Mech. JAMCAV94, 1041–1047.97dJAMCAV0021-8936Mead  DJ (1982),  A comparison of some equations for the flexural damping of damped sandwich beams, J. Sound Vib. JSVIAG83, 363–377.jsuJSVIAG0022-460XMead DJ (1970), The existence of normal modes of linear systems with arbitrary damping, Proc of Symp on Structural Dynamics (paper C2), Loughborough Univ of Technology, Loughborough UK.Lu  YP and Douglas  BE (1974),  On the forced vibrations of three-layer damped sandwich beams, J. Sound Vib. JSVIAG32, 513–516.jsuJSVIAG0022-460XJones DIG (1992), Results of a round-robin test program: Complex modulus properties of a polymeric damping material, USAF Report WL-TR-92-3104.Mead  DJ (1961),  Criteria for comparing the effectiveness of damping materials, Noise Control NOCOAN7(3), 27–38.955NOCOAN0549-5865Mead DJ (1998), Passive Vibration Control, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (UK).Mead DJ (1964), The damping of stiffened plate structures, Acoustical Fatigue in Aerospace Structures Ch 26, WJ Trapp and DM Forney Jr (eds) Syracuse Univ Press, Syracuse, NY.Mead DJ (1967), The use of stiffened sandwich plates on aircraft, Proc of Int Symp on Damping of Vibrations of Plates by Means of a Layer, H Mynke (ed), Leuven, Belgium.Lin  YK, Brown  ID, and Deutschle  PC (1964),  Free vibration of a finite row of continuous skin-stringer panels, J. Sound Vib. JSVIAG1, 14–27.jsuJSVIAG0022-460XLord  Rayleigh (1887),  On the maintenance of vibrations by forces of double frequency, and on the propagation of waves through a medium endowed with a periodic structure, Philos. Mag. PHMAA424, 145–159.phmPHMAA40031-8086Brillouin L (1946), Wave Propagation in Periodic Structures, Dover Publication, New York.Miles  JW (1956),  Vibrations of beams on many supports, J. Eng. Mech. JENMDT82(EM1), 1–9.979JENMDT0733-9399Mead  DJ (1973),  A general theory of harmonic wave propagation in linear periodic systems with multiple coupling, J. Sound Vib. JSVIAG27, 235–260.jsuJSVIAG0022-460XMead  DJ (1975),  Wave propagation and natural modes in periodic systems: I. Mono-coupled systems, J. Sound Vib. JSVIAG40, 1–18.jsuJSVIAG0022-460XMead  DJ (1975),  Wave propagation and natural modes in periodic systems: II. Multi-coupled systems, with and without damping, J. Sound Vib. JSVIAG40, 19–39.jsuJSVIAG0022-460XLin  YK and McDaniel  TJ (1969),  Dynamics of beam-type periodic structures, ASME J. Eng. Ind. JEFIA891, 1133–1141.98fJEFIA80022-0817Wilby EG (1967), The vibration of multi-supported beams with damping, Unpublished report submitted to Univ of Southampton, UK.Sen Gupta  G (1970),  Natural flexural waves and the normal modes of periodically-supported beams and plates, J. Sound Vib. JSVIAG13, 89–101.jsuJSVIAG0022-460XMead  DJ and Pujara  KK (1971),  Space harmonic analysis of periodically supported beams: Response to convected random loading, J. Sound Vib. JSVIAG14, 525–541.jsuJSVIAG0022-460XAbrahamson  AL (1973),  Flexural wave mechanics-An analytical approach to the vibration of periodic structures forced by convected pressure fields, J. Sound Vib. JSVIAG28, 247–258.jsuJSVIAG0022-460XOrris  RM and Petyt  M (1974),  A finite element study of harmonic wave propagation in periodic structures, J. Sound Vib. JSVIAG33, 223–236.jsuJSVIAG0022-460XMead  DJ, Zhu  DC, and Bardell  NS (1988),  Free vibration of an orthogonally-stiffened flat plate, J. Sound Vib. JSVIAG127, 19–48.jsuJSVIAG0022-460XMead  DJ and Bardell  NS (1989),  Free vibration of an othogonally-stiffened cylindrical shell, Part II: Discrete general stiffeners, J. Sound Vib. JSVIAG134, 55–72.jsuJSVIAG0022-460XMead  DJ and Bansal  AS (1978),  Mono-coupled periodic systems with a single disorder: Free wave propagation, J. Sound Vib. JSVIAG61, 481–496.jsuJSVIAG0022-460XMead  DJ and Bansal  AS (1978),  Mono-coupled periodic systems with a single disorder: Response to convected loadings, J. Sound Vib. JSVIAG61, 497–515.jsuJSVIAG0022-460XBansal AS (1977), Dynamic response of disordered periodic systems, PhD Dissertation, Univ of Southampton, Southampton, UK.Yang  JN and Lin  YK (1975),  Frequency response functions of a disordered periodic beam, J. Sound Vib. JSVIAG38, 317–340.jsuJSVIAG0022-460XKissel GJ (1988), Localisation in disordered periodic structures, PhD Dissertation, MIT, Cambridge, Mass.Bouzit  D and Pierre  C (1992),  Vibration confinement phenomena in disordered, mono-coupled, multi-span beams, ASME J. Vibr. Acoust. JVACEK114, 521–530.97sJVACEK0739-3717Cai  GQ and Lin  YK (1991),  Localisation of wave propagation in disordered periodic structures, AIAA J. AIAJAH29, 450–456.aiaAIAJAH0001-1452Cai  GQ and Lin  YK (1992),  Statistical distribution of frequency response in disordered periodic structures, AIAA J. AIAJAH30, 1400–1407.aiaAIAJAH0001-1452Castanier  MP and Pierre  C (1995),  Lyapunov exponents and localisation phenomena in multi-coupled nearly periodic systems, J. Sound Vib. JSVIAG183, 493–515.jsuJSVIAG0022-460X

Topics: Damping , Vibration
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

BOOK REVIEWS

Appl. Mech. Rev. 2002;55(6):B105. doi:10.1115/1.1508129.
FREE TO VIEW
Abstract
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Appl. Mech. Rev. 2002;55(6):B107. doi:10.1115/1.1508143.
FREE TO VIEW
Abstract
Appl. Mech. Rev. 2002;55(6):B108-B109. doi:10.1115/1.1508146.
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Abstract
Appl. Mech. Rev. 2002;55(6):B109. doi:10.1115/1.1508147.
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Appl. Mech. Rev. 2002;55(6):B109-B110. doi:10.1115/1.1508148.
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Abstract
Appl. Mech. Rev. 2002;55(6):B110. doi:10.1115/1.1508149.
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Abstract
Topics: Plastics
Appl. Mech. Rev. 2002;55(6):B114-B115. doi:10.1115/1.1508153.
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Appl. Mech. Rev. 2002;55(6):B115-B116. doi:10.1115/1.1508154.
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Appl. Mech. Rev. 2002;55(6):B116-B117. doi:10.1115/1.1508155.
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Abstract
Topics: Combustion , Fire
Appl. Mech. Rev. 2002;55(6):B117. doi:10.1115/1.1508156.
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Abstract
Topics: Seas , Mechanisms
Appl. Mech. Rev. 2002;55(6):B117-B118. doi:10.1115/1.1508157.
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Appl. Mech. Rev. 2002;55(6):B119. doi:10.1115/1.1508174.
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Abstract
Appl. Mech. Rev. 2002;55(6):B119-B121. doi:10.1115/1.1508176.
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Abstract
Appl. Mech. Rev. 2002;55(6):B121. doi:10.1115/1.1515482.
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Flügge-Lotz I (1968), Discontinuous and Optimal Control, McGraw-Hill Book Co., McGraw-Hill Series in Modern Applied Mathematics, New York.Pfeiffer F and Glocker Ch (1996), Multi-body Dynamics with Unilateral Contacts, Wiley-Interscience, New York.Strang G (1988), Linear Algebra, Third Edition, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, Ft Worth.

Topics: Vibration

REVIEW ARTICLES

Appl. Mech. Rev. 2002;55(6):495-533. doi:10.1115/1.1490129.

Soon after the discovery of carbon nanotubes, it was realized that the theoretically predicted mechanical properties of these interesting structures–including high strength, high stiffness, low density and structural perfection–could make them ideal for a wealth of technological applications. The experimental verification, and in some cases refutation, of these predictions, along with a number of computer simulation methods applied to their modeling, has led over the past decade to an improved but by no means complete understanding of the mechanics of carbon nanotubes. We review the theoretical predictions and discuss the experimental techniques that are most often used for the challenging tasks of visualizing and manipulating these tiny structures. We also outline the computational approaches that have been taken, including ab initio quantum mechanical simulations, classical molecular dynamics, and continuum models. The development of multiscale and multiphysics models and simulation tools naturally arises as a result of the link between basic scientific research and engineering application; while this issue is still under intensive study, we present here some of the approaches to this topic. Our concentration throughout is on the exploration of mechanical properties such as Young’s modulus, bending stiffness, buckling criteria, and tensile and compressive strengths. Finally, we discuss several examples of exciting applications that take advantage of these properties, including nanoropes, filled nanotubes, nanoelectromechanical systems, nanosensors, and nanotube-reinforced polymers. This review article cites 349 references.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Appl. Mech. Rev. 2002;55(6):535-577. doi:10.1115/1.1501080.

Friction is a very complicated phenomenon arising at the contact of surfaces. Experiments indicate a functional dependence upon a large variety of parameters, including sliding speed, acceleration, critical sliding distance, temperature, normal load, humidity, surface preparation, and, of course, material combination. In many engineering applications, the success of models in predicting experimental results remains strongly sensitive to the friction model. Furthermore, a broad cross section of engineering and science disciplines have developed interesting ways of representing friction, with models originating from the fundamental mechanics areas, the system dynamics and controls fields, as well as many others. A fundamental unresolved question in system simulation remains: what is the most appropriate way to include friction in an analytical or numerical model, and what are the implications of friction model choice? This review article draws upon the vast body of literature from many diverse engineering fields and critically examines the use of various friction models under different circumstances. Special focus is given to specific topics: lumped-parameter system models (usually of low order)—use of various types of parameter dependence of friction; continuum system models—continuous interface models and their discretization; self-excited system response—steady-sliding stability, stick/slip, and friction model requirements; and forced system response—stick/slip, partial slip, and friction model requirements. The conclusion from this broad survey is that the system model and friction model are fundamentally coupled, and they cannot be chosen independently. Furthermore, the usefulness of friction model and the success of the system dynamic model rely strongly on each other. Across disciplines, it is clear that multi-scale effects can dominate performance of friction contacts, and as a result more research is needed into computational tools and approaches capable of resolving the diverse length scales present in many practical problems. There are 196 references cited in this review-article.

Topics: Friction , Force
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Appl. Mech. Rev. 2002;55(6):579-599. doi:10.1115/1.1506323.

In a number of manufacturing processes for composite structures, resin flows through fiber reinforcement that is prearranged in a mold or a die. This article presents a review of mathematical models used to study the flow of resin through fiber reinforcement. The general approach is to consider the resin as a fluid propagating through a porous medium: the mold (or die) cavity partially filled with fiber reinforcement and other filler material. The resistance of the reinforcement to fluid flow is characterized by the permeability tensor and many analytical, numerical, and experimental techniques have been developed to predict or to measure the components of that tensor. The behavior of the resin depends on its viscosity, which depends on temperature and the degree of cure. Often mold filling is completed before any appreciable temperature change or curing occurs, so the analysis of this phase of the process is uncoupled from the thermal and curing problems. In other cases all three problems are coupled and should be solved simultaneously. Several complicating factors must be considered: 1) the deformation of the reinforcement during the preforming stage, during mold closure, or during resin injection, can affect permeabilities and flow patterns; 2) gaps between the reinforcement and the surface of the mold can cause edge flows that bypass the expected flow pattern; and 3) the inhomogeneous nature of the reinforcement with higher flow resistance inside fiber bundles than in surrounding gaps leads to complex flow patterns near the flow front and to the formation of microvoids. This article reviews the mathematical models that are required in order to simulate composite manufacturing processes in which resin flows through fiber reinforcement. The numerical implementation of these models using the finite element method or other numerical techniques is beyond the scope of this review. The bulk of the current body of knowledge in this area was developed since 1990. There are 165 references in this review article.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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