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Review Article

Extreme Events: Mechanisms and Prediction

[+] Author and Article Information
Mohammad Farazmand

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
mfaraz@mit.edu

Themistoklis Sapsis

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
sapsis@mit.edu

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4042065 History: Received March 15, 2018; Revised November 17, 2018

Abstract

Extreme events, such as rogue waves, earthquakes and stock market crashes, occur spontaneously in many dynamical systems. Because of their usually adverse consequences, quantification, prediction and mitigation of extreme events are highly desirable. Here, we review several aspects of extreme events in phenomena described by high-dimensional, chaotic dynamical systems. We specially focus on two pressing aspects of the problem: (i) Mechanisms underlying the formation of extreme events and (ii) Real-time prediction of extreme events. For each aspect, we explore methods relying on models, data or both. We discuss the strengths and limitations of each approach as well as possible future research directions.

Copyright (c) 2018 by ASME
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