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Closure

Closure to “Discussion of ‘A Review of Propulsion, Power, and Control Architectures for Insect-Scale Flapping Wing Vehicles’” (Helbling, E. F., and Wood, R. J., 2018, ASME Appl. Mech. Rev., 70(1), p. 010801) OPEN ACCESS

[+] Author and Article Information
E. Farrell Helbling

John A. Paulson School of Engineering
and Applied Sciences,
Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering,
Harvard University,
Cambridge, MA 02138
e-mail: ehelbling@seas.harvard.edu

Robert J. Wood

John A. Paulson School of Engineering
and Applied Sciences,
Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University,
Cambridge, MA 02138
e-mail: rjwood@seas.harvard.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received December 7, 2017; final manuscript received December 8, 2017; published online January 18, 2018. Editor: Harry Dankowicz.

Appl. Mech. Rev 70(1), 016001 (Jan 18, 2018) (1 page) Paper No: AMR-17-1090; doi: 10.1115/1.4038797 History: Received December 07, 2017; Revised December 08, 2017
FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE

The authors of the review article “A Review of Propulsion, Power, and Control Architectures for Insect-Scale Flapping wing Vehicles” [1] greatly appreciated the commentary by Dr. S. K. Gupta [2]. We believe that he has identified numerous practical considerations that were not covered in depth in our review and that nicely complement our review such that, in aggregate, the two present a complete picture of the challenges and opportunities for developing and deploying autonomous insect-like vehicles. In particular, Dr. Gupta highlights the need for payload and flight time that are adequate for a desired mission or scenario. This brings up an inherent conundrum in the design of any flying vehicle (i.e., greater mission duration requires more onboard energy storage, leading to more massive storage device and a commensurate increase in required thrust to compensate, also increasing energy consumption; thus, increasing mission duration while keeping vehicle size constant is a significant challenge). Radical new solutions for energy harvesting or quantum breakthroughs in energy storage technologies are needed to get away from this tradeoff. Similarly, communication poses a challenge since even low-power wireless communication can consume a comparable amount of power as required for flight (Bluetooth Low Energy, for example, can consume more than 100 mW of power while transmitting, and we measured the power for flight of the RoboBee in Ref. [3] to be 19 mW2). This motivates exploration into communication strategies that leverage either semipassive communication methods, such as explored for MEMS sensor mote applications [4], or as Gupta points out, multifunctional use of components otherwise needed for the flight and control apparatus.

References

Helbling, E. F. , and Wood, R. J. , 2018, “ A Review of Propulsion, Power, and Control Architectures for Insect-Scale Flapping Wing Vehicles,” ASME Appl. Mech. Rev., 70(1), p. 010801. [CrossRef]
Gupta, S. K. , 2018, “ Discussion of ‘A Review of Propulsion, Power, and Control Architectures for Insect-Scale Flapping Wing Vehicles’ by E. F. Helbling and R. J. Wood,” ASME Appl. Mech. Rev., 70(1), p. 015501. [CrossRef]
Ma, K. Y. , Chirarattananon, P. , Fuller, S. B. , and Wood, R. J. , 2013, “ Controlled Flight of a Biologically Inspired, Insect-Scale Robot,” Science, 340(6132), pp. 603–607. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Chu, P. B. , Lo, N. R. , Berg, E. C. , and Pister, K. S. , 1997, “ Optical Communication Using Micro Corner Cube Reflectors,” IEEE Tenth Annual International Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS'97), Nagoya, Japan, Jan. 26–30, pp. 350–355.
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References

Helbling, E. F. , and Wood, R. J. , 2018, “ A Review of Propulsion, Power, and Control Architectures for Insect-Scale Flapping Wing Vehicles,” ASME Appl. Mech. Rev., 70(1), p. 010801. [CrossRef]
Gupta, S. K. , 2018, “ Discussion of ‘A Review of Propulsion, Power, and Control Architectures for Insect-Scale Flapping Wing Vehicles’ by E. F. Helbling and R. J. Wood,” ASME Appl. Mech. Rev., 70(1), p. 015501. [CrossRef]
Ma, K. Y. , Chirarattananon, P. , Fuller, S. B. , and Wood, R. J. , 2013, “ Controlled Flight of a Biologically Inspired, Insect-Scale Robot,” Science, 340(6132), pp. 603–607. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Chu, P. B. , Lo, N. R. , Berg, E. C. , and Pister, K. S. , 1997, “ Optical Communication Using Micro Corner Cube Reflectors,” IEEE Tenth Annual International Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS'97), Nagoya, Japan, Jan. 26–30, pp. 350–355.

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