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Review Article

Dynamic Forces Induced by a Single Pedestrian: A Literature Review

[+] Author and Article Information
Adel Younis

Department of Civil and
Architectural Engineering,
Qatar University,
P.O. Box 2713,
Doha, Qatar
e-mail: adel.younis@qu.edu.qa

Onur Avci

Department of Civil and
Architectural Engineering,
Qatar University,
P.O. Box 2713,
Doha, Qatar
e-mail: oavci@vt.edu

Mohammed Hussein

Department of Civil and
Architectural Engineering,
Qatar University,
P.O. Box 2713,
Doha, Qatar
e-mail: mhussein@qu.edu.qa

Brad Davis

Department of Civil Engineering,
University of Kentucky,
373 Raymond Building,
Lexington, KY 40506
e-mail: dbraddavis@uky.edu

Paul Reynolds

Professor of Structural Dynamics and
Control, Mathematics, and Physical Sciences
College of Engineering,
University of Exeter,
North Park Road,
Exeter EX4 4QF, UK
e-mail: p.reynolds@exeter.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received August 24, 2016; final manuscript received March 22, 2017; published online April 10, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Francois Barthelat.

Appl. Mech. Rev 69(2), 020802 (Apr 10, 2017) (17 pages) Paper No: AMR-16-1066; doi: 10.1115/1.4036327 History: Received August 24, 2016; Revised March 22, 2017

With the use of lighter construction materials, more slender architectural designs, and open floor plans resulting in low damping, vibration serviceability has become a dominant design criterion for structural engineers worldwide. In principle, assessment of floor vibration serviceability requires a proper consideration of three key issues: excitation source, system, and receiver. Walking is usually the dominant human excitation for building floors. This paper provides a comprehensive review of a considerable number of references dealing with experimental measurement and mathematical modeling of dynamic forces induced by a single pedestrian. The historical development of walking force modeling—from single harmonic loads to extremely complex stochastic processes—is discussed. As a conclusion to this effort, it is suggested that less reliance should be made by the industry on the deterministic force models, since they have been shown to be overly conservative. Alternatively, due to the random nature of human walking, probabilistic force models seem to be more realistic, while more research is needed to achieve enough confidence to implement in design practice.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Components of vibration serviceability analysis

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Fig. 2

A single walk cycle. (Reprinted with permission from Racic et al. [19]. The original version was published by Inman et al. [35]. Copyright 1981 by Williams & Wilkins.)

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Fig. 3

Vertical force resulted from a single step. (Reprinted with permission from Racic et al. [19]. Copyright 2009 by Elsevier.)

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Fig. 4

Typical walking and running time histories. (Reprinted with permission from Racic et al. [19]. The original version was published by Galbraith and Barton [34]. Copyright 1970 by Acoustical Society of America.)

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Fig. 5

Vertical force patterns for different modes of movement activity. (Reprinted with permission from Živanović et al. [20]. The original version was published by Wheeler [51]. Copyright 1980 by National Academy of Sciences.)

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Fig. 6

Historical development of force modeling approaches

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Fig. 7

Walking speed and DLF as a function of pacing rate. (Reprinted with permission from Živanović et al. [20]. The original version was published by Yoneda [59]. Copyright 2002 by AFGC.)

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Fig. 8

DLFs gathered from different authors for the first four harmonics of the walking force. (Reprinted with permission from Živanović et al. [20]. The original version was published by Young [60]. Copyright 2005 by Elsevier.)

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Fig. 9

Comparison of the response behavior in (a) low- and (b) high-frequency floor due to successive steps. (Reprinted with permission from Middleton and Brownjohn [30]. Copyright 2010 by Elsevier.)

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Fig. 10

Effective impulse proposed as a function of pacing rate and floor's natural frequency. (Reprinted with permission from Racic et al. [19]. The original version was published by Willford et al. [67]. Copyright 2005 by SPIE.)

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Fig. 11

Autospectral density of the walking force. (Reprinted with permission from Živanović et al. [20]. The original version was published by Eriksson [72]. Copyright 1994 by Chalmers Publication Library.)

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Fig. 12

Measurement of continuous walking force using an instrumented treadmill. (Reprinted with permission from Brownjohn et al. [55]. Copyright 2004 by National Research Council Canada.)

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Fig. 13

Representation of simulated deterministic walking force signal in the frequency domain. (Reprinted with permission from Brownjohn et al. [55]. Copyright 2004 by National Research Council Canada.)

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Fig. 14

Representation of real continuous walking force in the frequency domain. (Reprinted with permission from Brownjohn et al. [55]. Copyright 2004 by National Research Council Canada.)

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Fig. 15

Appearing of the subharmonic amplitudes of the walking force in the frequency domain. (Reprinted with permission from Živanović et al. [69]. Copyright 2007 by Elsevier.)

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Fig. 16

Normal distribution of the step frequency for normal walking, reported after (a) Živanović et al. [69], (b) Matsumoto et al. [82], (c) Kasperski and Sahnaci [83], and (d) Kramer and Kebe [85]. (Reprinted with permission from Pedersen and Frier [54] with modifications. Copyright 2010 by Elsevier.)

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Fig. 17

Normal distribution of walking speed at 1.8 Hz of step frequency. (Reprinted with permission from Racic et al. [19]. The original version was published by Zivanovic [86]. Copyright 2006 by the University of Sheffield.)

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Fig. 18

Nonlinear observed relationship between step length and walking speed. (Reprinted with permission from Racic et al. [19]. The original version was published by Yamasaki et al. [89]. Copyright 1991 by Springer.)

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Fig. 19

DLFs of the first harmonic crowd-walking force as a function of the number of persons and step frequency. (Reprinted with permission from Živanović et al. [20]. The original version was published by Ebrahimpour et al. [90]. Copyright 1996 by ASCE.)

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Fig. 20

(a) Probability of the peak modal acceleration excited by a single pedestrian; (b) cumulative probability that the peak modal acceleration is less than or equal the value specified in the x-axis. (Reprinted with permission from Živanović et al. [91]. Copyright 2007 by Society for Experimental Mechanics.)

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Fig. 21

(a) The 80-step walking force time history measured by an instrumented treadmill for a single pedestrian, (b) DLFs appearing for the main and subharmonics in the frequency domain, (c) phase angle of forces in Fourier spectrum, and (d) period of walking steps. (Reprinted with permission from Živanović et al. [69]. Copyright 2007 by Elsevier.)

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Fig. 22

A portion of actually measured continuous walking force in a 40-s period. (Reprinted with permission from Racic and Brownjohn [92]. Copyright 2011 by Elsevier.)

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Fig. 23

Frequency-based categorization of actually measured walking force signals. (Reprinted with permission from Racic and Brownjohn [92]. Copyright 2011 by Elsevier.)

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Fig. 24

Linear relationship trend between normalized impulse and cycle time. (Reprinted with permission from Racic and Brownjohn [92]. Copyright 2011 by Elsevier.)

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Fig. 25

Algorithm for generating synthesized walking force signals. (Reprinted with permission from Racic and Brownjohn [92]. Copyright 2011 by Elsevier.)

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Fig. 26

Description of the four-parted building floor selected for the comparative study. (Reprinted with permission from Živanović and Pavić [68]. Copyright 2009 by ASCE.)

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