0
Review Article

Manufacture and Mechanics of Topologically Interlocked Material Assemblies

[+] Author and Article Information
Thomas Siegmund

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: siegmund@purdue.edu

Francois Barthelat

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
McGill University,
Montreal, QC H3A 2K6, Canada
e-mail: francois.barthelat@mcgill.ca

Raymond Cipra

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: cipra@purdue.edu

Ed Habtour, Jaret Riddick

Vehicle Technology Directorate,
RDRL-VTM,
U.S. Army Research Laboratory,
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005

Manuscript received March 9, 2016; final manuscript received May 17, 2016; published online July 14, 2016. Editor: Harry Dankowicz.This work is in part a work of the U.S. Government. ASME disclaims all interest in the U.S. Government contributions.

Appl. Mech. Rev 68(4), 040803 (Jul 14, 2016) (15 pages) Paper No: AMR-16-1018; doi: 10.1115/1.4033967 History: Received March 09, 2016; Revised May 17, 2016

Topologically interlocked material (TIM) systems are load-carrying assemblies of unit elements interacting by contact and friction. TIM assemblies have emerged as a class of architectured materials with mechanical properties not ordinarily found in monolithic solids. These properties include, but are not limited to, high damage tolerance, damage confinement, adaptability, and multifunctionality. The review paper provides an overview of recent research findings on TIM manufacturing and TIM mechanics. We review several manufacturing approaches. Assembly manufacturing processes employ the concept of scaffold as a unifying theme. Scaffolds are understood as auxiliary support structures employed in the manufacturing of TIM systems. It is demonstrated that the scaffold can take multiple forms. Alternatively, processes of segmentation are discussed and demonstrated. The review on mechanical property characteristics links the manufacturing approaches to several relevant material configurations and details recent findings on quasi-static and impact loading, and on multifunctional response.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Ashby, M. F. , and Bréchet, Y. J. M. , 2003, “ Designing Hybrid Materials,” Acta Mater., 51(19), pp. 5801–5821. [CrossRef]
Ashby, M. F. , 2005, “ Hybrids to Fill Holes in Material Property Space,” Philos. Mag., 85(26–27), pp. 3235–3257. [CrossRef]
Bouaziz, O. , Bréchet, Y. , and Embury, J. D. , 2008, “ Heterogeneous and Architectured Materials: A Possible Strategy for Design of Structural Materials,” Adv. Eng. Mater., 10(1–2), pp. 24–36. [CrossRef]
Ashby, M. F. , 2011, “ Hybrid Materials to Expand the Boundaries of Material-Property Space,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 94(s1), pp. s3–s14. [CrossRef]
Fleck, N. A. , Deshpande, V. S. , and Ashby, M. F. , 2010, “ Micro-Architectured Materials: Past, Present and Future,” Proc. R. Soc. A, 466(2121), pp. 2495–2516. [CrossRef]
dell'Isola, F. , Steigmann, D. , and Della Corte, A. , 2015, “ Synthesis of Fibrous Complex Structures: Designing Microstructure to Deliver Targeted Macroscale Response,” ASME Appl. Mech. Rev., 67(6), p. 060804. [CrossRef]
Bertoldi, K. , Boyce, M. C. , Deschanel, S. , Prange, S. M. , and Mullin, T. , 2008, “ Mechanics of Deformation-Triggered Pattern Transformations and Superelastic Behavior in Periodic Elastomeric Structures,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 56(8), pp. 2642–2668. [CrossRef]
Nesterenko, V. F. , 2001, Dynamics of Heterogeneous Materials, Springer Science & Business Media, New York.
Porter, M. A. , Kevrekidis, P. G. , and Daraio, C. , 2015, “ Granular Crystals: Nonlinear Dynamics Meets Materials Engineering,” Phys. Today, 68(11), pp. 44–50. [CrossRef]
Gu, X. W. , and Greer, J. R. , 2015, “ Ultra-Strong Architected Cu Meso-Lattices,” Extreme Mech. Lett., 2, pp. 7–14. [CrossRef]
Feng, Y. , Siegmund, T. , Habtour, E. , and Riddick, J. , 2015, “ Impact Mechanics of Topologically Interlocked Material Assemblies,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 75, pp. 140–149. [CrossRef]
Molotnikov, A. , Gerbrand, R. , Bouaziz, O. , and Estrin, Y. , 2013, “ Sandwich Panels With a Core Segmented Into Topologically Interlocked Elements,” Adv. Eng. Mater., 15(8), pp. 728–731. [CrossRef]
Mirkhalaf, M. , Dastjerdi, A. K. , and Barthelat, F. , 2014, “ Overcoming the Brittleness of Glass Through Bio-Inspiration and Micro-Architecture,” Nat. Commun., 5, p. 3166. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Heyman, J. , 1966, “ The Stone Skeleton,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 2(2), pp. 249–279. [CrossRef]
Tessmann, O. , and Becker, M. , 2013, “ Extremely Heavy and Incredibly Light: Performative Assemblies in Dynamic Environments,” Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2013), The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Hong Kong, and Center for Advanced Studies in Architecture (CASA), Department of Architecture, National University of Singapore, Singapore, May 15–18, pp. 469–478.
Tessmann, O. , 2012, “ Topological Interlocking Assemblies,” Physical Digitality—Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Education and Research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, Prague, Czech Republic, Sept. 12–14, Vol. 2, pp. 211–220.
Rippmann, M. , and Block, P. , 2013, “ Rethinking Structural Masonry: Unreinforced, Stone-Cut Shells,” Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng.: Constr. Mater., 166(6), pp. 378–389. [CrossRef]
Conway, J. H. , and Torquato, S. , 2006, “ Packing, Tiling, and Covering With Tetrahedra,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 103(28), pp. 10612–10617. [CrossRef]
Kanel-Belov, A. J. , Dyskin, A. V. , and Estrin, Y. , 2010, “ Interlocking of Convex Polyhedra: Towards a Geometric Theory of Fragmented Solids,” Moscow Math. J., 10(2), pp. 337–342.
Weizmann, M. , Amir, O. , and Grobman, Y. J. , 2015, “ Topological Interlocking in Architectural Design,” Emerging Experience in Past, Present and Future of Digital Architecture—Proceedings of the 20th International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2015), Daegu, South Korea, May 20–22, The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Hong Kong, pp. 107–116.
Brocato, M. , and Mondardini, L. , 2015, “ Parametric Analysis of Structures From Flat Vaults to Reciprocal Grids,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 54, pp. 50–65. [CrossRef]
Glickman, M. , 1984, “ The G-Block System of Vertically Interlocking Paving,” 2nd International Conference on Concrete Block Paving, Delft University of Technology, Apr. 10–12, American Society for Testing and Materials, Delft, The Netherlands, pp. 345–348.
Dyskin, A. V. , Estrin, Y. , Kanel-Belov, A. J. , and Pasternak, E. , 2001, “ A New Concept in Design of Materials and Structures: Assemblies of Interlocked Tetrahedron-Shaped Elements,” Scr. Mater., 44(12), pp. 2689–2694. [CrossRef]
Dyskin, A. V. , Estrin, Y. , Kanel-Belov, A. J. , and Pasternak, E. , 2001, “ Toughening by Fragmentation—How Topology Helps,” Adv. Eng. Mater., 3(11), pp. 885–888. [CrossRef]
Dyskin, A. V. , Estrin, Y. , Kanel-Belov, A. J. , and Pasternak, E. , 2003, “ Topological Interlocking of Platonic Solids: A Way to New Materials and Structures,” Philos. Mag. Lett., 83(3), pp. 197–203. [CrossRef]
Schaare, S. , Dyskin, A. V. , Estrin, Y. , Arndt, S. , Pasternak, E. , and Kanel-Belov, A. , 2008, “ Point Loading of Assemblies of Interlocked Cube-Shaped Elements,” Int. J. Eng. Sci., 46(12), pp. 1228–1238. [CrossRef]
Krause, T. , Molotnikov, A. , Carlesso, M. , Rente, J. , Rezwan, K. , Estrin, Y. , and Koch, D. , 2012, “ Mechanical Properties of Topologically Interlocked Structures With Elements Produced by Freeze Gelation of Ceramic Slurries,” Adv. Eng. Mater., 14(5), pp. 335–341. [CrossRef]
Khandelwal, S. , Siegmund, T. , Cipra, R. J. , and Bolton, J. S. , 2012, “ Transverse Loading of Cellular Topologically Interlocked Materials,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 49(18), pp. 2394–2403. [CrossRef]
Autruffe, A. , Pelloux, F. , Brugger, C. , Duval, P. , Bréchet, Y. , and Fivel, M. , 2007, “ Indentation Behaviour of Interlocked Structures Made of Ice: Influence of the Friction Coefficient,” Adv. Eng. Mater., 9(8), pp. 664–666. [CrossRef]
Dyskin, A. V. , Pasternak, E. , and Estrin, Y. , 2012, “ Mortarless Structures Based on Topological Interlocking,” Front. Struc. Civ. Eng., 6(2), pp. 188–197.
Estrin, Y. , Dyskin, A. V. , Pasternak, E. , Schaare, S. , Stanchits, S. , and Kanel-Belov, A. J. , 2004, “ Negative Stiffness of a Layer With Topologically Interlocked Elements,” Scr. Mater., 50(2), pp. 291–294. [CrossRef]
Brugger, C. , Bréchet, Y. , and Fivel, M. , 2008, “ Experiments and Numerical Simulations of Interlocked Materials,” Adv. Mater. Res., 47–50, pp. 125–128. [CrossRef]
Mather, A. , Cipra, R. J. , and Siegmund, T. , 2012, “ Structural Integrity During Remanufacture of a Topologically Interlocked Material,” Int. J. Struct. Integr., 3(1), pp. 61–78. [CrossRef]
Molotnikov, A. , Gerbrand, R. , Qi, Y. , Simon, G. P. , and Estrin, Y. , 2015, “ Design of Responsive Materials Using Topologically Interlocked Elements,” Smart Mater. Struct., 24(2), p. 025034. [CrossRef]
Khandelwal, S. , Cipra, R. J. , Bolton, J. S. , and Siegmund, T. , 2015, “ Adaptive Mechanical Properties of Topologically Interlocking Material Systems,” Smart Mater. Struct., 24(4), p. 045037. [CrossRef]
Carlesso, M. , Molotnikov, A. , Krause, T. , Tushtev, K. , Kroll, S. , Rezwan, K. , and Estrin, Y. , 2012, “ Enhancement of Sound Absorption Properties Using Topologically Interlocked Elements,” Scr. Mater., 66(7), pp. 483–486. [CrossRef]
Carlesso, M. , Giacomelli, R. , Krause, T. , Molotnikov, A. , Koch, D. , Kroll, S. , Tushtev, K. , Estrin, Y. , and Rezwan, K. , 2013, “ Improvement of Sound Absorption and Flexural Compliance of Porous Alumina-Mullite Ceramics by Engineering the Microstructure and Segmentation Into Topologically Interlocked Blocks,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 33(13–14), pp. 2549–2558. [CrossRef]
Bréchet, Y. J. M. , 2013, “ Architectured Materials: An Alternative to Microstructure Control for Structural Materials Design? A Possible Playground for Bioinspiration?,” Materials Design Inspired by Nature, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, pp. 1–16.
Mather, A. , 2007, “ Concepts in Improved Product Manufacturability and Reusability Through the Use of Topologically Interconnecting Structural Elements,” Master's thesis, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.
Brocato, M. , Deleporte, W. , Mondardini, L. , and Tanguy, J.-E. , 2014, “ A Proposal for a New Type of Prefabricated Stone Wall,” Int. J. Space Struct., 29(2), pp. 97–112. [CrossRef]
Molotnikov, A. , Estrin, Y. , Dyskin, A. V. , Pasternak, E. , and Kanel-Belov, A. J. , 2007, “ Percolation Mechanism of Failure of a Planar Assembly of Interlocked Osteomorphic Elements,” Eng. Fract. Mech., 74(8), pp. 1222–1232. [CrossRef]
Golosovsky, M. , Saado, Y. , and Davidov, D. , 1999, “ Self-Assembly of Floating Magnetic Particles Into Ordered Structures: A Promising Route for the Fabrication of Tunable Photonic Band Gap Materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 75(26), pp. 4168–4170. [CrossRef]
Grzybowski, B. A. , Stone, H. A. , and Whitesides, G. M. , 2000, “ Dynamic Self-Assembly of Magnetized, Millimetre-Sized Objects Rotating at a Liquid–Air Interface,” Nature, 405(6790), pp. 1033–1036. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mirkhalaf, M. , Tanguay, J. , and Barthelat, F. , 2016, “ Carving 3D Architectures Within Glass: Exploring New Strategies to Transform the Mechanics and Performance of Materials,” Extreme Mech. Lett., 7, pp. 104–113. [CrossRef]
Mirkhalaf, M. , and Barthelat, F. , 2015, “ A Laser-Engraved Glass Duplicating the Structure, Mechanics and Performance of Natural Nacre,” Bioinspiration Biomimetics, 10(2), p. 026005. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Dugue, M. , Fivel, M. , Bréchet, Y. , and Dendievel, R. , 2013, “ Indentation of Interlocked Assemblies: 3D Discrete Simulations and Experiments,” Comput. Mater. Sci., 79, pp. 591–598. [CrossRef]
Brugger, C. , Fivel, M. C. , and Bréchet, Y. , 2009, “ Numerical Simulations of Topologically Interlocked Materials Coupling DEM Methods and FEM Calculations: Comparison With Indentation Experiments,” Symposium LL—Architectured Multifunctional Materials, MRS Proc., 1188, p. LL05-05.
Khandelwal, S. , Siegmund, T. , Cipra, R. J. , and Bolton, J. S. , 2014, “ Scaling of the Elastic Behavior of Two-Dimensional Topologically Interlocked Materials Under Transverse Loading,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 81(3), p. 031011. [CrossRef]
Brocato, M. , and Mondardini, L. , 2010, “ Geometric Methods and Computational Mechanics for the Design of Stone Domes Based on Abeille's Bond,” Advances in Architectural Geometry 2010, Springer-Verlag, Vienna, Austria, pp. 149–162.
Khor, H. C. , Dyskin, A. V. , Estrin, Y. , and Pasternak, E. , 2004, “ Mechanisms of Fracturing in Structures Built From Topologically Interlocked Blocks,” International Conference on Structural Integrity and Fracture, SIF2004, Brisbane, Australia, Sept. 26–29, Australian Fracture Group, Inc., Perth, Australia, pp. 189–194.
Block, P. , and Ochsendorf, J. , 2007, “ Thrust Network Analysis: A New Methodology for Three-Dimensional Equilibrium,” J. Int. Assoc. Shell Spat. Struct., 48(3), pp. 167–173.
Block, P. , and Lachauer, L. , 2014, “ Three-Dimensional Funicular Analysis of Masonry Vaults,” Mech. Res. Commun., 56, pp. 53–60. [CrossRef]
Siegmund, T. , Khandelwal, S. , Wheatley, B. , Varanasi, S. , Cipra, R. , and Bolton, S. , 2013, “ Multifunctional Composites by Segmentation and Assembly,” International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM-19), Montreal, QC, Canada, July 28–Aug. 2, pp. 23–31.
Calladine, C. R. , 1978, “ Buckminster Fuller's ‘Tensegrity’ Structures and Clerk Maxwell's Rules for the Construction of Stiff Frames,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 14(2), pp. 161–172. [CrossRef]
Bowden, L. , Byrne, H. , Maini, P. , and Moulton, D. , 2015, “ A Morphoelastic Model for Dermal Wound Closure,” Biomech. Model. Mechanobiol., 15(3), pp. 663–681. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Konrad, W. , Flues, F. , Schmich, F. , Speck, T. , and Speck, O. , 2013, “ An Analytic Model of the Self-Sealing Mechanism of the Succulent Plant Delosperma Cooperi,” J. Theor. Biol., 336, pp. 96–109. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Busch, S. , Seidel, R. , Speck, O. , and Speck, T. , 2010, “ Morphological Aspects of Self-Repair of Lesions Caused by Internal Growth Stresses in Stems of Aristolochia Macrophylla and Aristolochia Ringens,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B, 277(1691), pp. 2113–2120. [CrossRef]
Lambert, J. , and Jonas, G. , 1976, “ Towards Standardization in Terminal Ballistics Testing: Velocity Representation,” USA Ballistic Research Laboratories, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, Technical Report No. 1852.
Wardiningsih, W. , Troynikov, O. , Molotnikov, A. , and Estrin, Y. , 2013, “ Influence of Protective Pad Integrated Into Sport Compression Garments on Their Pressure Delivery to Athlete's Lower Limbs,” Procedia Eng., 60, pp. 170–175. [CrossRef]
Estrin, Y. , Dyskin, A. V. , Pasternak, E. , Khor, H. C. , and Kanel-Belov, A. J. , 2010, “ Topological Interlocking of Protective Tiles for the Space Shuttle,” Philos. Mag. Lett., 83(6), pp. 351–355. [CrossRef]
Dyskin, A. V. , Estrin, Y. , Pasternak, E. , Khor, H. C. , and Kanel-Belov, A. J. , 2005, “ The Principle of Topological Interlocking in Extraterrestrial Construction,” Acta Astronaut., 57(1), pp. 10–21. [CrossRef]
Barthelat, F. , 2015, “ Architectured Materials in Engineering and Biology: Fabrication, Structure, Mechanics and Performance,” Int. Mater. Rev., 60(8), pp. 413–430. [CrossRef]
Fratzl, P. , Kolednik, O. , Fischer, F. D. , and Dean, M. N. , 2016, “ The Mechanics of Tessellations—Bioinspired Strategies for Fracture Resistance,” Chem. Soc. Rev., 45(2), pp. 252–267. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Barthelat, F. , Yin, Z. , and Buehler, M. J. , 2016, “ Structure and Mechanics of Interfaces in Biological Materials,” Nat. Rev. Mater., 1(4), p. 16007. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Two TIM systems with internal constraints: (a) a plate-type configuration based on regular tetrahedra [53] and (b) a cantilever-type configuration based on truncated tetrahedra. Unit elements are manufactured by fused deposition 3D printing; T300 carbon fiber tow is used as the internal constraint.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) TIM system removed from the scaffold and externally constrained. In this configuration, the external constraint is provided by a prestressed elastic cable guided in tubes. (b) A sandwich panel with a TIM core. In this hybrid TIM system, the scaffold becomes the sandwich facesheet. (Reproduced with permission from Molotnikov et al. [12]. Copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Assembly with rigid scaffold plane and a template. Individual unit elements made by fused deposition 3D printing, unit elements edge length of a = 25.0 mm. (Reproduced with permission from Mather et al. [33]. Copyright 2012 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

TIM assembly with gravity assist in a U-shaped rigid scaffold. Individual unit elements are made of a rigid polymer foam and shaped by a wire cutting process [39]. Unit elements edge length of a = 25.0 mm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Deformable (string) scaffold in (a) the open state with grid spacing w and (b) the closed state with grid spacing w′, achieved by differential scaling of the scaffold grid [39].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Mechanism for parallel assembly of a topologically interlocked architectured material with a deformable scaffold: (a) initial placement of unit element on grid, (b) mechanism in open state for the approximate placement of unit elements, and (c) mechanism in closed state. String guides possess pultrusions to guide the strings individually and are free to rotate about their midspan point [39].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Quasi-static force–deflection response of transversely loaded TIM assembly and comparison to a monolithic equivalent: (a) schematic of experiment, (b) failure pattern in plain glass and architectured glass, (c) force–displacement response measured for plain glass and architectured glass, and (d) force–displacement response measured for several different architectured glass segmentation angles. (Reproduced with permission from Mirkhalaf et al. [44]. Copyright 2016 by Elsevier.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Example of a TIM system: (a) a plurality of unit elements and the principle of topological interlocking. (Reproduced with permission from Khandelwal et al. [35]. Copyright 2015 by IOP Publishing Limited.) (b) A topologically interlocked architectured material.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Mechanism overview for the deformable string scaffold [39].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Mechanism geometry detail: (a) positions of wire guides and (b) kinematic relationships [39].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

(a) Unit element with features for directional self-assembly at the air–fluid interface. Unit element manufactured by polyjet 3D printing. (b) Self-assembled TIM based on unit elements shown.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Three-dimensional printer control software (objet studio) for the manufacture of a TIM system.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

(a) A homogeneous 3D-printed TIM. Metal shim stock is used along the frame to control confinement pressure in the assembly. (b) A 3D-printed TIM with microstructured unit elements, unit elements are truncated tetrahedra.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Generating weak interfaces within glass: (a) a nanosecond-pulsed laser focused beam creates microdefects at its focal point. Arrays of these defects define the weak interfaces between individual blocks. (b) Glass compact tension specimen used to measure the toughness of the laser-engraved interface; (c) the size of the defects can be adjusted by the power of the laser; and (d) the toughness of the interfaces can be tuned from zero (“laser cutting”) to the toughness of bulk glass by adjusting the spacing between defects [13,45] (original figures by the authors).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Architectured glass panels: (a) numerical models where the interfaces define and array of truncated tetrahedra which are topologically interlocked, (b) picture of the laser-engraved panel, and (c) top view of four engraved panels with different oblique angles. (Reproduced with permission from Mirkhalaf et al. [44]. Copyright 2016 by Elsevier.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

(a) TIM in deformed configuration due to transverse loading, (b) predicted deformed configuration and spatial distribution of Mises equivalent stress, and (c) measured and predicted force–deflection response. (Reproduced with permission from Feng et al. [11]. Copyright 2015 by Elsevier.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Distribution of compressive principal stresses in TIM under transverse load ((a) and (b)); from thrustline to truss system (c).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Representative force–deflection curves for transversely loaded TIM assemblies with rigid external constraint and internal constraint by carbon fiber tow [53].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Impact characteristics for a glass-based TIM: (a) schematic of experimental setup, (b) failure pattern in plain glass and architectured glass, (c) impact energy of architectured glasses, modified architectured glasses, and plain glass, and (d) coefficients of restitution of architectured glass and plain glass. (Reproduced with permission from Mirkhalaf et al. [44]. Copyright 2016 by Elsevier.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Finite element simulation of impact on (a) damage distribution in a TIM system and (b) damage evolution in the equivalent monolithic system. Simulations account for cohesive elements distributed evenly throughout the model volume.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

LJ relationship for a TIM, computational prediction. (Reproduced with permission from Feng et al. [11]. Copyright 2015 by Elsevier.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Control of mechanical response of a TIM through the in-plane constraint: (a) TIM force–deformation response under control of the external constraint, positive, and negative stiffness is achieved. (b) Predicted energy absorption diagram considering several actively controlled TIM cases with several plateau load values. (Reproduced with permission from Khandelwal et al. [35]. Copyright 2015 by IOP Publishing Limited.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Control of mechanical response of a TIM by embedded SMA wires controlling the in-plane constraint: (a) imposed transverse displacement, insert depicts the TIM system composed of osteomorphic bricks and the SMA wires in channels through the brick units; (b) response of the SMA-enhanced TIM to SMA current during constant applied displacement. The current alters in in-plane constraint and thus the stiffness of the TIM. (Reproduced with permission from Molotnikov et al. [34]. Copyright 2015 by IOP Publishing Limited.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

Shape morphing TIM system: unilaterally truncated tetrahedra units (0–33%) (a) are used to construct internally constraint TIMs (Fig. 9(b)) with part of the C-fiber tow augmented by an SMA wire. The resulting TIM deflection is controlled by the SMA wire (b) and allows to control the shape from flat (c) to curved (d).

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In