0
Review Article

Acoustically Coupled Combustion of Liquid Fuel Droplets

[+] Author and Article Information
Ann R. Karagozian

Department of Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering,
University of California,
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597
e-mail: ark@seas.ucla.edu

Manuscript received August 28, 2015; final manuscript received May 25, 2016; published online July 7, 2016. Editor: Harry Dankowicz.

Appl. Mech. Rev 68(4), 040801 (Jul 07, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: AMR-15-1098; doi: 10.1115/1.4033792 History: Received August 28, 2015; Revised May 25, 2016

The dynamics of oscillatory flames is relevant to acoustically coupled combustion instabilities arising in many practical engineering systems. This paper reviews fundamental studies that pertain to the combustion of single liquid fuel droplets in an acoustically resonant environment. This flow field is not only an idealized model for the study of the fundamental interaction of reactive, evaporative, acoustic, and other transport-based timescales, but it may also be used to identify relevant phenomena in more complex or practical geometries that require a focus for future combustion control efforts. The nature of these phenomena is discussed in detail, in addition to their implications for broader issues associated with combustion instabilities.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Crocco, L. , and Cheng, S.-I. , 1956, Theory of Combustion Instability in Liquid Propellant Rocket Motors (Agardograph), Butterworth Scientific, London, UK.
Lieuwen, T. C. , and Yang, V. , 2005, “ Combustion Instabilities in Gas Turbine Engines (Operational Experience, Fundamental Mechanisms and Modeling),” Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA.
Candel, S. M. , 1992, “ Combustion Instabilities Coupled by Pressure Waves and Their Active Control,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 24(1), pp. 1277–1296. [CrossRef]
Culick, F. E. C. , 1994, “ Some Recent Results for Nonlinear Acoustics in Combustion Chambers,” AIAA J., 32(1), pp. 146–169. [CrossRef]
Mongia, H. C. , Held, T. J. , Hsiao, G. C. , and Pandalai, R. P. , 2003, “ Challenges and Progress in Controlling Dynamics in Gas Turbine Combustors,” J. Propul. Power 19(5), pp. 822–829.
McManus, K. R. , Poinsot, T. , and Candel, S. M. , 1993, “ A Review of Active Control of Combustion Instabilities,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 19(1), pp. 1–29. [CrossRef]
Candel, S. , 2002, “ Combustion Dynamics and Control: Progress and Challenges,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 29(1), pp. 1–28. [CrossRef]
Oefelein, J. C. , and Yang, V. , 1993, “ Comprehensive Review of Liquid Propellant Combustion Instabilities in F-1 Engines,” Propul. Power, 9(5), pp. 657–677. [CrossRef]
Culick, F. E. C. , and Yang, V. , 1995, “ Overview of Combustion Instabilities in Liquid-Propellant Rocket Engines,” Progress in Aeronautics and Astronautics: Liquid Rocket Engine Combustion Instability, W. E. Anderson , and V. Yang , eds., AIAA, Washington, DC.
Sutton, G. , and Biblarz, O. , 2010, Rocket Propulsion Elements, 8th ed., Wiley, New York.
Anderson, W. E. , and Yang, V. , 1995, Progress in Aeronautics and Astronautics: Liquid Rocket Engine Combustion Instability, AIAA, Washington, DC.
Ducruix, S. , Schuller, T. , Durox, D. , and Candel, S. , 2003, “ Combustion Dynamics and Instabilities: Elementary Coupling and Driving Mechanisms,” J. Propul. Power, 19(5), pp. 722–734. [CrossRef]
O'Connor, J. , Acharya, V. , and Lieuwen, T. , 2015, “ Transverse Combustion Instabilities: Acoustic, Fluid Mechanic, and Flame Processes,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 49, pp. 1–39. [CrossRef]
Rayleigh, L. , 1945, The Theory of Sound, Dover, New York.
Putnam, A. , 1971, Combustion-Driven Oscillations in Industry, American Elsevier, New York.
Poinsot, T. , and Veynante, D. , 2001, Theoretical and Numerical Combustion, R. T. Edwards, Philadelphia, PA.
Ghoniem, A. F. , Soteriou, M. C. , Knio, O. M. , and Cetegen, B. M. , 1992, “ Effect of Steady and Periodic Strain on Unsteady Flamelet Combustion,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 24(1), pp. 223–230. [CrossRef]
Egolfopoulos, F. N. , and Campbell, C. S. , 1996, “ Unsteady Counterflowing Strained Diffusion Flames: Diffusion-Limited Frequency Response,” J. Fluid Mech., 318, pp. 1–29. [CrossRef]
Selerland, T. , and Karagozian, A. R. , 1998, “ Ignition, Burning, and Extinction of a Strained Fuel Strip With Complex Kinetics,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 131(1–6), pp. 251–276. [CrossRef]
Sevilla-Esparza, C. I. , Wegener, J. L. , Teshome, S. , Rodriguez, J. I. , Smith, O. I. , and Karagozian, A. R. , 2014, “ Droplet Combustion in the Presence of Acoustic Excitation,” Combust. Flame, 161(6), pp. 1604–1619. [CrossRef]
Sirignano, W. A. , 1983, “ Fuel Droplet Vaporization and Spray Combustion Theory,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 9(4), pp. 291–322. [CrossRef]
Godsave, G. A. E. , 1953, “ Burning of Fuel Droplets,” Combust. Flame, pp. 818–830.
Faeth, G. M. , 1977, “ Current Status of Droplet and Liquid Combustion,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 3(4), pp. 191–224. [CrossRef]
Juniper, M. , Tripathi, A. , Scouflaire, P. , Rolon, J. , and Candel, S. , 2000, “ Structure of Cryogenic Flames at Elevated Pressures,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 28(1), pp. 1103–1109. [CrossRef]
Candel, S. , Juniper, M. , Singla, G. , Scouflaire, P. , and Rolon, C. , 2006, “ Structure and Dynamics of Cryogenic Flames at Supercritical Pressure,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 178(1–3), pp. 161–192. [CrossRef]
Chehroudi, B. , Davis, D. W. , and Talley, D. , 2004, “ The Effects of Pressure and Acoustic Field on a Cryogenic Coaxial Jet,” AIAA Paper No. 2004-1330.
Leyva, I. , Rodriguez, J. I. , Chehroudi, B. , and Talley, D. , 2008, “ Preliminary Results on Coaxial Jet Spread Angles and the Effects of Variable Phase Transverse Acoustic Fields,” AIAA Paper No. 2008-950.
Rodriguez, J. I. , Leyva, I. , Chehroudi, B. , and Talley, D. , 2008, “ Effects of a Variable-Phase Transverse Acoustic Field on a Coaxial Injector at Subcritical and Near-Critical Conditions,” ILASS Americas, 21st Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems.
Teshome, S. , Leyva, I. , Talley, D. , and Karagozian, A. R. , 2012, “ Cryogenic High-Pressure Shear-Coaxial Jets Exposed to Transverse Acoustic Forcing,” AIAA Paper No. 2012-1265.
Forliti, D. J. , Badakhshan, A. , Wegener, J. L. , Leyva, I. , and Talley, D. G. , 2015, “ The Response of Cryogenic H2/O2 Coaxial Jet Flames to Acoustic Disturbances,” AIAA Paper No. 2015-1607.
Law, C. K. , and Faeth, G. M. , 1994, “ Opportunities and Challenges of Combustion in Microgravity,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 20(1), pp. 65–113. [CrossRef]
Blaszczyk, J. , 1991, “ Acoustically Disturbed Fuel Droplet Combustion,” Fuel, 70(9), pp. 1023–1025. [CrossRef]
Kumagai, S. , and Isoda, H. , 1955, “ Combustion of Fuel Droplets in a Vibrating Air Field,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 5(1), pp. 129–132. [CrossRef]
Law, C. K. , 1982, “ Recent Advances in Droplet Vaporization and Combustion,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 8(3), pp. 171–201. [CrossRef]
Turns, S. R. , 2000, An Introduction to Combustion, McGraw Hill, New York.
Struk, P. M. , Ackerman, M. , Nayagam, V. , and Dietrich, D. L. , 1998, “ On Calculating Burning Rates During Fibre Supported Droplet Combustion,” Microgravity Sci. Technol., 11(4), pp. 144–151.
Dembia, C. L. , Liu, Y. C. , and Avedisian, C. T. , 2012, “ Automated Data Analysis for Consecutive Images From Droplet Combustion Experiments,” Image Anal. Stereol., 31(3), pp. 137–148. [CrossRef]
Liu, Y. C. , and Avedisian, C. T. , 2012, “ A Comparison of the Spherical Flame Characteristics of Sub-Millimeter Droplets of Binary Mixtures of n-Heptane/Iso-Octane and n-Heptane/Toluene With a Commercial Unleaded Gasoline,” Combust. Flame, 159(2), pp. 770–783. [CrossRef]
Cho, S. Y. , Choi, M. Y. , and Dryer, F. L. , 1990, “ Extinction of a Free Methanol Droplet in Microgravity,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 23(1), pp. 1611–1617. [CrossRef]
Marchese, A. , Dryer, F. , Nayagam, V. , and Colantino, R. , 1996, “ Hydroxyl Radical Chemiluminescence Imaging and the Structure of Microgravity Droplet Flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 26(1), pp. 1219–1226. [CrossRef]
Marchese, A. , Dryer, F. , Colantino, R. , and Nayagam, V. , 1996, “ Microgravity Combustion of Methanol and Methanol/Water Droplets: Drop Tower Experiments and Model Predictions,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 26(1), pp. 1209–1217. [CrossRef]
Liu, Y. C. , Farouk, T. , Savas, A. J. , Dryer, F. L. , and Avedisian, C. T. , 2013, “ On the Spherically Symmetrical Combustion of Methyl Decanoate Droplets and Comparisons With Detailed Numerical Modeling,” Combust. Flame, 160(3), pp. 641–655. [CrossRef]
Dattarajan, S. , Lutomirski, A. , Lobbia, R. , Smith, O. I. , and Karagozian, A. R. , 2006, “ Acoustic Excitation of Droplet Combustion in Microgravity and Normal Gravity,” Combust. Flame, 144(1–2), pp. 299–317. [CrossRef]
Dattarajan, S. , 2004, “ Acoustically Excited Droplet Combustion in Normal Gravity and Microgravity,” Ph.D. thesis, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA.
Erbschloe, D. , 2012, “ Air Force Alternative Fuels Process Paves Way to Future,” Air Force Air Mobility Command, Sapphire Energy Report.
Wegener, J. L. , 2014, “ Multi-Phase Combustion Under the Influence of Acoustic Excitation,” Ph.D. thesis, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA.
Smith, A. , and Graves, C. , 1957, “ Drop Burning Rates of Hydrocarbon and Nonhydrocarbon Fuels,” NACA RME 57, p. F11.
Vielle, B. , Chauveau, C. , Chesneau, X. , Odeide, A. , and Gokalp, I. , 1996, “ High Pressure Droplet Burning Experiments in Microgravity,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 26(1), pp. 1259–1265. [CrossRef]
Wood, B. J. , and Wise, H. , 1957, “ Measurements of the Burning Constant of a Fuel Drop,” J. Appl. Phys., 28(9), p. 1068. [CrossRef]
Okai, K. , Moriue, O. , Araki, M. , Tsue, M. , Kono, M. , Sato, J. , Dietrich, D. L. , and Williams, F. A. , 2000, “ Combustion of Single Droplets and Droplet Pairs in a vibrating Field Under Microgravity,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 28(1), pp. 977–983. [CrossRef]
Saito, M. , Sato, M. , and Suzuki, I. , 1994, “ Evaporation and Combustion of a Single Fuel Droplet in Acoustic Fields,” Fuel, 73(3), pp. 349–353. [CrossRef]
Sujith, R. I. , Waldherr, G. A. , Jagoda, J. I. , and Zinn, B. T. , 2000, “ Experimental Investigation of the Evaporation of Droplets in Axial Acoustic Fields,” J. Propul. Power, 16(2), pp. 278–285. [CrossRef]
Saito, M. , Hoshikawa, M. , and Sato, M. , 1996, “ Enhancement of Evaporation/Combustion Rate Coefficient of a Single Fuel Droplet by Acoustic Oscillation,” Fuel, 75(6), pp. 669–674. [CrossRef]
Miglani, A. , Basu, S. , and Kumari, R. , 2014, “ Insight Into Instabilities in Burning Droplets,” Phys. Fluids, 26(3), p. 032101. [CrossRef]
Basu, S. , and Miglani, A. , 2016, “ Combustion and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Nanofluid Fuel Droplets: A Short Review,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 96, pp. 482–503. [CrossRef]
Miglani, A. , Basu, S. , and Kumar, R. , 2014, “ Suppression of Instabilities in Burning Droplets Using Preferential Acoustic Perturbations,” Combust. Flame, 161(12), pp. 3181–3190. [CrossRef]
Tanabe, M. , Morita, T. , Aoki, K. , Satoh, K. , Fujimori, T. , and Sato, J. , 2000, “ Influence of Standing Sound Waves on Droplet Combustion,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 28(1), pp. 1007–1013. [CrossRef]
Tanabe, M. , Kuwahara, T. , Satoh, K. , Fujimori, T. , Sato, J. , and Kono, M. , 2005, “ Droplet Combustion in Standing Sound Waves,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 30(2), pp. 1957–1964. [CrossRef]
Jangi, M. , Sakurai, S. , Ogami, Y. , and Kobayashi, H. , 2009, “ On the Validity of Quasi-Steady Assumption in Transient Droplet Combustion,” Combust. Flame, 156(1), pp. 99–105. [CrossRef]
Tanabe, M. , 2010, “ Drop Tower Experiments and Numerical Modeling on the Combustion-Induced Secondary Flow in Standing Acoustic Fields,” Microgravity Sci. Technol., 22(4), pp. 507–515. [CrossRef]
Gor'kov, L. , 1962, “ On the Forces Acting on a Small Particle in an Acoustical Field in an Ideal Fluid,” Sov. Phys.-Dokl., 6(9), pp. 773–775.
Nyborg, W. L. , 1967, “ Radiation Pressure on a Small Rigid Sphere,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 42(5), pp. 947–952. [CrossRef]
Leung, E. W. , and Wang, T. , 1985, “ Force on a Heated Sphere in a Horizontal Plane Acoustic Standing Wave,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 77(5), pp. 1686–1691. [CrossRef]
Diederichsen, J. , and Gould, R. , 1965, “ Combustion Instability: Radiation From Premixed Flames of Variable Burning Velocity,” Combust. Flame, 9(1), pp. 25–31. [CrossRef]
Anders, H. , Christensen, M. , Johansson, B. , Franke, A. , Richter, M. , and Alden, M. , 1999, “ A Study of the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Process by Chemiluminescence Imaging,” SAE Technical Paper No. 99-01-3680.
Lawn, C. , 2000, “ Distributions of Instantaneous Heat Release by the Cross-Correlation of Chemiluminescent Emissions,” Combust. Flame, 123(1), pp. 227–240. [CrossRef]
Haber, L. , Vandsburger, U. , Saunders, W. , and Khanna, V. , 2000, “ An Experimental Examination of the Relationship Between Chemiluminescent Light Emissions and Heat-Release Rate Under Non-Adiabatic Conditions,” International Gas Turbine Institute, Munich, Germany, May 8–11, Paper 2000-GT-0121.
Timmerman, B. , and Bryanston-Cross, P. , 2007, “ Optical Investigation of Heat Release and NOx Production in Combustion,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., 85, p. 012007. [CrossRef]
Leo, M. D. , Saveliev, A. , Kennedy, L. , and Zelepouga, S. , 2007, “ OH* and CH* Luminescence in Opposed Flow Methane Oxy-Flames,” Combust. Flame, 149(4), pp. 435–447. [CrossRef]
Gopalakrishnan, P. , Bobba, M. , and Seitzman, J. , 2007, “ Controlling Mechanisms for Low NOx Emissions in a Non-Premixed Stagnation Point Reverse Flow Combustor,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 31(2), pp. 3401–3408. [CrossRef]
Sliphorst, M. , Knapp, B. , Groening, S. , and Oschwald, M. , 2012, “ Combustion Instability-Coupling Mechanisms Between Liquid Oxygen/Methane Spray Flames and Acoustics,” J. Propul. Power, 28(6), pp. 1339–1350. [CrossRef]
Jangi, M. , and Kobayashi, H. , 2010, “ Droplet Combustion in Presence of Airstream Oscillation: Mechanisms of Enhancement and Hysteresis of Burning Rate in Microgravity at Elevated Pressure,” Combust. Flame, 157(1), pp. 91–105. [CrossRef]
Sevilla-Esparza, C. I. , 2013, “ Oscillatory Flame Response in Acoustically Coupled Fuel Droplet Combustion,” M.S. thesis, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA.
Valentini, D. , Tran, P. H. , Lopez, B. , Ekmekji, A. , Smith, O. I. , and Karagozian, A. R. , 2014, “ Partial Extinction and the Rayleigh Index in Acoustically Driven Fuel Droplet Combustion,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., 59(16), pp. 486–487.
Kistler, J. , Sung, C. , Kreut, T. , Law, C. , and Nishioka, M. , 1996, “ Extinction of Counterflow Diffusion Flames Under Velocity Oscillations,” Symp. (Int.) Combust., 26(1), pp. 113–120. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of combustion instability created via feedback of acoustic disturbances

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

OH* chemiluminescence images of various liquid fuel droplets burning in air. The droplets are suspended from a fine capillary and burn under atmospheric, normal gravity conditions. (a) Ethanol, (b) methanol, (c) JP-8, and (d) FT. (Reprinted with permission from Sevilla-Esparza et al. [20]. Copyright 2014 by Elsevier).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of the acoustic waveguide and droplet feed system, from the normal gravity experiments. (Reprinted with permission from Sevilla-Esparza et al. [20]. Copyright 2014 by Elsevier.) Sample pressure and velocity amplitude distributions are shown for a standing wave configuration.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

In microgravity, the effect of SPL (in dB) on methanol droplet mean burning rate constant K, normalized by its mean value under unforced conditions (SPL corresponding to negative infinity), where the droplet is situated in the vicinity of a PN. PN conditions created by excitation frequencies of 240 Hz, 290 Hz, 670 Hz, and 770 Hz are shown. (Reprinted with permission from Dattarajan et al. [43]. Copyright 2006 by Elsevier).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

In microgravity, the effect of n-hexadecanol droplet location, relative to a PN (or velocity antinode), on flame deflection. (Reprinted with permission from Tanabe et al. [57]. Copyright 2000 by Elsevier).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Instantaneous video frames for a droplet situated precisely at a PN and burning in microgravity, subject to acoustic excitation at 770 Hz and 140 dB. The different photographs show the temporally evolving behavior of the flame, corresponding to times (a) 0.63 s, (b) 1.03 s, (c) 1.5 s, (d) 1.76 s, and (e) 1.97 s after the commencement of the microgravity experiment. A burning droplet in the absence of acoustic excitation is shown for comparison in (f). (Reprinted with permission from Dattarajan et al. [43]. Copyright 2006 by Elsevier).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

For burning ethanol droplets exposed to acoustic forcing at fa = 1500 Hz and pmax′  = 150 Pa: (a) Mean OH* chemiluminescence images at different waveguide locations x, with corresponding measurements (symbols) and theoretical prediction (lines) of local pressure perturbation amplitude. (b) Measured [20] and theoretically predicted [57] acoustic acceleration ga as a function of x. (Reprinted with permission from Sevilla-Esparza et al. [20]. Copyright 2014 by Elsevier).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

OH* chemiluminescence image of an ethanol droplet burning in the presence of acoustic excitation. With acoustic excitation, both buoyancy force Fb and acoustic radiation force Fa affect flame orientation so that orientation angle ϕf≠0. θ measures position about the droplet and δf measures local flame standoff distance. The droplet radius rs and the flame radius rf are functions of θ in the imposed polar coordinate system, whose origin coincides with the center of the droplet. u′ represents the horizontal perturbation velocity. (Reprinted with permission from Sevilla-Esparza et al. [20]. Copyright 2014 by Elsevier).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Estimated experimental acoustic accelerations ga as a function of the droplet displacement x, in units of wavelength λ associated with forcing frequencies 332 Hz (), 898 Hz (·), and 1500 Hz (). Data are shown, from top to bottom, for ethanol, methanol, JP-8, and FT fuels. (Reprinted with permission from Sevilla-Esparza et al. [20]. Copyright 2014 by Elsevier).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

For ethanol droplet combustion exposed to acoustic excitation at a maximum pressure perturbation amplitude pmax′  = 150 Pa, results of phase-locked measurements, as a function of temporal phase, of: normalized OH* chemiluminescence intensity I′, pressure perturbation p′, and flame horizontal standoff distance δf. Data pertain to a droplet located at x/λ ≈ −0.02 for fa = 332 Hz (data extracted from Refs. [73] and [74]).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Horizontal flame standoff distance oscillation amplitudes δf′ for all fuels and excitation frequencies for droplets located at various locations x scaled by wavelength λ. Fuels shown: ethanol (), methanol (·), JP-8 (), FT (). (Reprinted with permission from Sevilla-Esparza et al. [20]. Copyright 2014 by Elsevier).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Rayleigh index G(x) for burning ethanol droplets situated at different waveguide locations x and for different excitation frequencies fa. (Reprinted with permission from Sevilla-Esparza et al. [20]. Copyright 2014 by Elsevier).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Average burning rate constant K (scaled with respect to the value of Kunf for a nonforced burning droplet) as a function of the droplet displacement x, in units of wavelength λ associated with forcing frequencies 332 Hz (), 898 Hz (), and 1500 Hz (). Data are shown, from top to bottom, for ethanol, methanol, JP-8, and FT fuels. (Reprinted with permission from Sevilla-Esparza et al. [20]. Copyright 2014 by Elsevier).

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In