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Review Article

A Review on Bistable Composite Laminates for Morphing and Energy Harvesting

[+] Author and Article Information
Samir A. Emam

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
United Arab Emirates University,
P. O. Box 15551,
Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
e-mail: semam@uaeu.ac.ae

Daniel J. Inman

Department of Aerospace Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, 48109 MI
e-mail: daninman@umich.edu

1Corresponding author.

2On leave from Department of Mechanical Design and Production, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt.

Manuscript received February 27, 2015; final manuscript received November 10, 2015; published online December 11, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Rui Huang.

Appl. Mech. Rev 67(6), 060803 (Dec 11, 2015) (15 pages) Paper No: AMR-15-1031; doi: 10.1115/1.4032037 History: Received February 27, 2015; Revised November 10, 2015

Bistable composite laminates have received a considerable attention due to their fabulous behavior and potential for morphing and energy harvesting. A bistable or multistable laminate is a type of composite structure that exhibits multiple stable static configurations. The characterization of unsymmetric fiber-reinforced laminated composite plates as a bistable structure is well established and quantitatively determined after about 30 years of research. As predicting cured shapes of unsymmetric composite laminates became well identified, attention was directed to the design of these structures for morphing applications. Bistable composite laminates have attracted researchers as a morphing structure because a bistable structure settles at one of its equilibrium positions without demanding continuous power to remain there. If the structure is triggered to leave an equilibrium position, it will snap or jump to the other equilibrium position. The snapthrough response is highly geometrically nonlinear. With the increased demand for broadband vibration energy harvesters, bistable composite laminates, which are able to gain large-amplitude vibrations in snapthrough motion, have recently attracted attention. This paper aims to summarize, review, and assess references and findings concerned with the response of bistable composite laminates for morphing and energy harvesting to date. It also highlights the remaining challenges and possible future research work as research in bistable composites transitions from phenomena to application.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Laminated shapes: (a) the flat shape, (b) the unstable saddle shape, (c) and (d) two stable cylindrical shapes (reproduced with permission from Hyer [2])

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Fig. 2

Geometry of a composite laminate. (a) Cross section view and (b) top view.

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Fig. 3

Glass-fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) prestressed buckled laminates (Reproduced with permission from Daynes et al. [32]. Copyright 2008 by Elsevier Ltd.)

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Fig. 4

Two stable shapes of antisymmetric laminate (Reproduced with permission from Zhang et al. [40]. Copyright 2014 by Elsevier Ltd.)

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Fig. 5

Stable configurations of two BHSLs (Reproduced with permission from Li et al. [41]. Copyright 2014 by Elsevier Ltd.)

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Fig. 6

Snapthrough load versus aspect ratio for an unsymmetric laminate (Reproduced with permission from Tawfik et al. [46]. Copyright 2007 by SAGE Publications.)

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Fig. 7

Stable configurations of [0/90/0MFC]T (Reproduced with permission from Bowen et al. [55]. Copyright 2011 by IEEE.)

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Fig. 8

Variable stiffness laminate based on (a) curvilinear-fiber model and (b) straight-fiber laminate model (Reproduced with permission from Sousa et al. [64]. Copyright 2012 by Elsevier Ltd.) and (Reproduced with permission from Mattioni et al. [65]. Copyright 2007 by Elsevier Ltd.)

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Fig. 9

Model of a trailing edge box (a) and the first stable shape of the trailing edge box (b) (Reproduced with permission from Diaconu et al. [21]. Copyright 2007 by Elsevier Ltd.

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Fig. 10

Hybrid laminates (Reproduced with permission from Daynes and Weaver [71]. Copyright 2007 by Elsevier Ltd.)

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Fig. 11

Stacking sequence and stable shapes of a bistable panel. (a) Stacking sequence for the bistable laminate, (b) first stable shape, and (c) second stable shape (Reproduced with permission from Mattioni et al. [65]. Copyright 2007 by Elsevier Ltd.)

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Fig. 12

The bistable winglet. (a) Extended configuration and (b) deployed configuration (Reproduced with permission from Mattioni et al. [73]. Copyright 2008 by SPIE.)

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Fig. 13

Experimental model for variable camber trailing edge: (a) deployed configuration and (b) extended configuration (Reproduced with permission from Mattioni et al. [73]. Copyright 2008 by SPIE.)

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Fig. 14

Plots of (a) force–displacement and (b) stiffness-displacement resulted from a quasi-static test where dotted lines represent measured data (Reproduced with permission from Shaw et al. [76]. Copyright 2013 by Elsevier Ltd.)

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Fig. 15

Design of an airfoil section with bistable composite flap (Reproduced with permission from Daynes et al. [79]. Copyright 2009 by S. Daynes, P. M. Weaver, and K. D. Potter.)

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Fig. 16

Bistable trailing edge of an airfoil. (a) Flab at 0 deg and (b) flap at 10 deg (Reproduced with permission from Daynes et al. [80]. Copyright 2009 by S. Daynes, S. J. Nall, P. M. Weaver, K. D. Potter, P. Margaris, and P. H. Mellor.)

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Fig. 17

A swept wing configuration (Reproduced with permission from Mattioni et al. [81]. Copyright 2006 by F. Mattioni, A. Gatto, P. M. Weaver, M. I. Friswell, and K. D. Potter.)

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Fig. 18

Stable states of a bistable plate: (a) stable state 1 and (b) stable state 2 (Reproduced with permission from Arrieta et al. [57]. Copyright 2011 by SAGE Publications.)

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Fig. 19

Comparison of dynamic snapthrough for four-ply bistable plate-MFC with only shaker and shaker plus MFC-actuation (Reproduced with permission from Arrieta et al. [57]. Copyright 2011 by SAGE Publications.)

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Fig. 20

Comparison of the average power outputs of a linear and nonlinear energy harvesters (Reproduced with permission from Erturk and Inman [99]. Copyright 2010 by Elsevieer Ltd.)

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Fig. 21

Actuation arrangement of a bistable laminate with 40% piezoelectric covering 2012 by AIP Publishing LLC.) (Reproduced with permission from Betts et al. [102]. Copyright 2012 by AIP Publishing LLC.)

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Fig. 22

Variation of the electric power with the piezoelectric area while varying (a) the piezoelectric patch directions angle and (b) the number of plies of 0.125 mm thickness each (Reproduced with permission from Betts et al. [102]. Copyright 2012 by AIP Publishing LLC.)

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Fig. 23

Voltage outputs for (a) low amplitude oscillation, (b) nonuniform behavior and chaotic snapthrough, (c) intermittent snapthrough, and (d) repeated snapthrough (Reproduced with permission from Betts et al. [104]. Copyright 2012 by AIP Publishing LLC.)

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Fig. 24

Experimentally observed mode types associated with all combinations of drive frequency and acceleration (Reproduced with permission from Betts et al. [28]. Copyright 2014 by Betts et al.)

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Fig. 25

Average power outputs and associated modes for 10 g excitations. Experimental (black symbols) and modeling results (gray) (Reproduced with permission from Betts et al. [28]. Copyright Betts et al.)

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