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Review Article

A Review of Computational Hemodynamics in Middle Cerebral Aneurysms and Rheological Models for Blood Flow

[+] Author and Article Information
Laura Campo-Deaño

Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica,
CEFT,
Faculdade de Engenharia,
Universidade do Porto,
Rua Dr. Roberto Frias,
Porto 4200-465, Portugal
e-mail: campo@fe.up.pt

Mónica S. N. Oliveira

James Weir Fluids Laboratory,
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
University of Strathclyde,
Glasgow G1 1XJ, UK
e-mail: monica.oliveira@strath.ac.uk

Fernando T. Pinho

Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica,
CEFT,
Faculdade de Engenharia,
Universidade do Porto,
Rua Dr. Roberto Frias,
Porto 4200-465, Portugal
e-mail: fpinho@fe.up.pt

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received January 13, 2014; final manuscript received October 22, 2014; published online January 15, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Gianluca Iaccarino.

Appl. Mech. Rev 67(3), 030801 (May 01, 2015) (16 pages) Paper No: AMR-14-1007; doi: 10.1115/1.4028946 History: Received January 13, 2014; Revised October 22, 2014; Online January 15, 2015

Cerebrovascular accidents are the third most common cause of death in developed countries. Over recent years, CFD simulations using medical image-based anatomical vascular geometries have been shown to have great potential as a tool for diagnostic and treatment of brain aneurysms, in particular to help advise on the best treatment options. This work aims to present a state of the art review of the different models used in CFD, focusing in particular on modeling blood as a viscoelastic non-Newtonian fluid in order to help understand the role of the complex rheological nature of blood upon the dynamics of middle cerebral aneurysms. Moreover, since the mechanical properties of the vessel walls also play an important role in the cardiovascular system, different models for the arterial structure are reviewed in order to couple CFD and computational solid dynamics to allow the study of the fluidstructure interaction (FSI).

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Shapes of aneurysms: (a) saccular aneurysm and (b) fusiform aneurysm. (Reprinted with permission from Withers, K., et al. [28]. Copyright 2013 2.5 CC-BY-NC).

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Fig. 2

Representation of the aneurysms dimensions

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Fig. 3

Schematic representation of the main processes in handling computational hemodynamics

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Fig. 4

Shear rheology of whole blood measured experimentally. (a) Steady shear viscosity (η) curve [51]. (b) Storage (solid circles) and loss (open circles) moduli (adapted from Campo-Deano et al. [16]).

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Fig. 5

Average viscosity of whole blood measured experimentally by Valant et al. [51], compared to the different constitutive models described in Table 2. The experimental viscosity values are an average over blood samples of Hct ranging between 36% and 49%. The error bars correspond to the standard deviation of the averaged viscosity values.

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Fig. 6

Pressure and flow waves at multiple sites in the full body model. (Reprinted with permission from Xiao, et al. [74]. Copyright 2013 Elsevier).

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Fig. 7

Cyclic uniaxial tension tests of the media of a human carotid artery in circumferential (1) and axial (2) directions. (Reprinted with permission from Balzani, D., et al. [98] Copyright 2012 Elsevier).

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