A major challenge for the aircraft industry in the future will be the development of effective strategies for maintaining and extending the service life of aging aircraft fleet. In this context, residual-stress-based approaches for extending the fatigue life of aircraft components are believed to have great potential for providing cost-effective solutions. This paper reviews residual-stress-based life extension techniques and published work on the use of these techniques in aerospace applications. The techniques reviewed include cold expansion, shot peening, laser shock peening, deep rolling, and heating. Comparisons of the various techniques with regard to current applications and limitations are given.