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Review Article

Recent Advances in Sailing Yacht Aerodynamics

[+] Author and Article Information
Ignazio Maria Viola

Yacht and Superyacht Research Group,
School of Marine Science and Technology,
Newcastle University,
Queen Victoria Road, Armstrong Building,
Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK
e-mail: ignazio.viola@ncl.ac.uk

Manuscript received September 3, 2012; final manuscript received June 18, 2013; published online August 27, 2013. Editor: Harry Dankowicz.

Appl. Mech. Rev 65(4), 040801 (Aug 27, 2013) (12 pages) Paper No: AMR-12-1047; doi: 10.1115/1.4024947 History: Received September 03, 2012; Revised June 18, 2013

The analysis of sailing yacht aerodynamics has changed dramatically over the last 15 years and has enabled significant advances in performance prediction. For instance, the growth of computational fluid dynamics has significantly changed the way high-performance sails are designed. Three-dimensional mathematical models of fully rigged sail plans and the visualization of the turbulent unsteady flow pattern around them are now quite common, whereas ten years ago such a simulation would have been very rare and 20 years ago it would have been impossible. The parallel development of optimization techniques has resulted in new sail and yacht design methods. Changes in the experimental techniques have been as dramatic as in the numerical techniques. The introduction of the twisted flow device, the real-time velocity prediction program, and the most recent pressure measurements have allowed a step change in the potentialities of experimental sail aerodynamics. This paper aims to review the recent advances in sail aerodynamics and to highlight potential research areas for future work.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Example of a wind tunnel test in upwind conditions at the Politecnico di Milano Wind Tunnel

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Fig. 2

Example of a wind tunnel test in downwind conditions at the Politecnico di Milano Wind Tunnel

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Fig. 4

Drive force coefficient versus side force coefficient

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Fig. 5

Lift coefficient versus drag coefficient

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Fig. 6

Drag coefficient versus lift coefficient squared

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Fig. 7

Twisted Flow Wind Tunnel of the Yacht Research Unit, Auckland

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Fig. 8

Twisted Flow Wind Tunnel of the Yacht Research Unit, Kiel

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Fig. 9

The model immersed in a water tank at the Twisted Flow Wind Tunnel of the Yacht Research Unit, Auckland

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Fig. 10

Setup for the real-time VPP at the Politecnico di Milano Wind Tunnel, and details of the balance on the rotating frame (top insert) and the boat-floor clearance closure (lower insert)

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Fig. 11

Typical photograph of a sail processed with VSPARS

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Fig. 12

Lift and drag coefficients measured full scale (exp.), computed with VLM and RANS, for a genoa (a) and a jib (b). Edited from Masuyama et al. [64].

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Fig. 13

Full-scale and model-scale Cp on three sail sections

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