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Review Article

Acoustics of Corrugated Pipes: A Review

[+] Author and Article Information
M. G. Prasad

e-mail: mprasad@stevens.edu
Noise and Vibration Control Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Stevens Institute of Technology,
Hoboken, NJ 07030

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received January 18, 2013; final manuscript received August 26, 2013; published online October 4, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Bettina Frohnapfel.

Appl. Mech. Rev 65(5), 050801 (Oct 04, 2013) (24 pages) Paper No: AMR-13-1006; doi: 10.1115/1.4025302 History: Received January 18, 2013; Revised August 26, 2013

Corrugated pipes and tubes are commonly used in many engineering and industrial applications because they offer global flexibility combined with local rigidity. Some of the engineering systems which use the corrugated pipes are Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) storage systems, risers for offshore oil and gas industries, heat, ventilation, and air conditioning systems (HVAC), aerospace and automobile cabin cooling systems, and certain domestic appliances such as vacuum cleaners. Air flow through a short or a long length of corrugated pipes can cause the pipes to emit loud and clear “tonal” sounds or “whistling” at some critical flow conditions. Interaction and coupling of these acoustic waves with vortex shedding-flow instability can result in severe noise and structural vibration problems. A phenomenon of sound generation in corrugated pipes is also observed in a children's toy called “Hummer,” “Voice of the Dragon,” or “Magic Whistle.” This review paper focuses on the research work carried out to date to study the sound generation mechanism and its reduction methodology in corrugated pipes with air flow. This paper reviews and summarizes the various theoretical, experimental and computational work carried out in relation to acoustics of corrugated pipes.

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Abom, M., and Boden, H., 1988, “Error Analysis of Two-Microphone Measurements in Ducts With Flow,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 83, pp. 2429–2438. [CrossRef]
Banks-Lee, P., and Peng, H., 1989, “Length Error Analysis for Impedance Tube Measurements,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 85, pp. 1769–1772. [CrossRef]
Hardin, J. C., and Pope, D. S., 1995, “Sound Generation by Flow Over a Two Dimensional Cavity,” AIAA J., 33, pp. 407–412. [CrossRef]
Orr, W. M., 1907, “The Stability or Instability of the Steady Motions of a Liquid. Part I,” Proc. R. Irish. Aca, Ser. A, 27, pp. 9–68.
Orr, W. M., 1907, “The Stability or Instability of the Steady Motions of a Liquid. Part II,” Proc. R. Irish. Aca, Ser. A, 27, p. 69–138.
Sommerfeld, A., 1908, “Ein Beitrag zur Hydrodynamische Erklärung der Turbulenten Flüssigkeitsbewegungen,” Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of Mathematicians III, Rome, Italy, pp. 116–124.
Rowley, C. W., Williams, D. R., Colonius, T., Murray, R. M., and Macmynowski, D. G., 2006, “Linear Models for Control of Cavity Flow Oscillations,” J. Fluid Mech., 547, pp. 317–330. [CrossRef]
Rowley, C. W., 2002, “Modeling, Simulation, and Control of Cavity Flow Oscillations,” Ph.D. thesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
Lang, B., and Ronneberger, D., 2003, “Active Noise Control by Use of an Aero-Acoustic Instability,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 89, pp. 658–665.
Dear, T. A., and Ingard, K. U., 1997, “Acoustically Inactive Corrugated Structure,” U.S. Patent No. 5,597,785.
Gans, L., and Truppo, M., 1988, “Vaccum Cleaner Hose Having Alternating Height Corrugations,” U.S. Patent No. 4,756,045.
Shelter, D. W., and Bryson, L. W., 1997, “Vacuum Cleaner Hose and Method for Making Same,” U.S. Patent No. 5,657,793.
Romero, E., 2001, “Flexible Corrugated Hose and Method and Tool for Reducing Noise Therin,” U.S. Patent No. 20010014261A1.
Ballone, T., 1997, “A Flexible Duct With a Corrugated Double Wall for Decoupling the Exhaust Pipe of a Motor Vehicle,” European Patent No. 0779417A2.
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Parpart, D. B., Baxter, K., and Thielen, J., 2006, “Non-Whistling Vent Tube,” U.S. Patent No. 20060213567A1.
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Physical model of corrugated pipe

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Fig. 2

Musical toy made of corrugated pipes. (a) “Voice of the Dragon” (or) “Hummer,” (b) “Magic Whistle.”

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Fig. 3

Various applications of corrugated pipes: (a) general view of offshore flexible riser system, (b) internal structure of flexible risers, (c) metal corrugated bellows used in aircraft, (d) vacuum cleaner, (e) in-tank fuel supply module in an automobile

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Fig. 4

Cummings rectangular corrugated pipe model. Reprinted from Ref. [37] with permission from World Scientific Publishing.

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Fig. 5

Impinging shear-layer instability in cavity flow [13]. (Copyright: The Japan Society of Fluid Mechanics. Reproduced by permission of IOP Publishing.)

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Fig. 6

Sound frequency versus flow velocity. The frequency lock-in mechanism of vortex shedding and pipe resonance (solid circle represents the loudest sound of each harmonic or mode) [13]. (Copyright: The Japan Society of Fluid Mechanics. Reproduced by permission of IOP Publishing.)

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Fig. 7

Block diagram illustrating the onset of flow-acoustic instability [13,82]

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Fig. 8

The vortex sheet model of corrugated pipe. (Reprinted from Ref. [37] with permission from World Scientific Publishing.)

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Fig. 12

Schematic diagram of the apparatus used to measure the resonant tones in rotating “Voice of the Dragon” [10,14]. (Copyright: IOP Publishing Ltd and European Physical Society. Reproduced by permission of IOP Publishing.)

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Fig. 9

Singing corrugation pipe model for virtual audio analysis. (Adopted from Ref. [14] with permission.)

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Fig. 10

Wave guide model of main cylindrical tube as corrugated pipe. The losses are lumped in a filter Hb and R represents the reflection filter. (Adopted from Ref. [14] with permission.)

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Fig. 13

Experimental set up to measure the noise level in vacuum cleaners. (Reprinted from Ref. [17] with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 14

Schematic of the experimental setup used to measure the sound pressure level inside the corrugated pipe. (A: Pipe connecting box to vacuum cleaner; B: Pitot static tube and manometer; C: settling box; D: corrugated pipe; E: stationary microphone; F: microphone supplied with probe tube; H: measuring amplifiers; I: bandpass filters; J: voltage meter; K: phase meter; L: frequency counter). (Adopted from Ref. [70] with permission from the Acoustic Society of America.)

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Fig. 15

Measured sound pressure level, phase, and axial intensity for the third mode of the 615 mm corrugated pipe. (Adopted from Ref. [70] with permission from Acoustic Society of America.)

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Fig. 16

Experimental set up using two microphone method to measure the input impedance of corrugated pipes [28,70]

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Fig. 17

Input impedance of smooth (complete line), and corrugated (dashed line) pipes of equal length in the no flow case. (Adopted from (a) Kristiansen et al. [70] with permission from Acoustic Society of America, and (b) Taylor et al. [28].)

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Fig. 18

Experimental set up used for IL measurement and the measured IL value of smooth and corrugated pipes [28]

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Fig. 19

Experimental setups for measuring the resonant frequency and fluctuating acoustic pressure amplitude for (a) corrugated pipes and (b) multiple side branch system. (Adopted from Ref. [24] with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 11

Hot wire probe and microphone used for measurement of acoustic pressure and vortex shedding frequency in a corrugated pipe: (a) Nakamura et al. [13] (Copyright: The Japan Society of Fluid Mechanics. Reproduced by permission of IOP Publishing) and (b) Hammache et al. [21]

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Fig. 22

CFD–LES results of Pressure (Pa) distribution around the cavity, u = 18 m/s, t = 0.005 s; (a) pitch = 5.3 mm, (b) pitch = 8 mm (2D axisymetric, LES (Smagorinsky model), M < 0.01, time step of 1 μs, single cavity, mass flux periodic condition is assumed for this analysis). (Reprinted from Ref. [82] with permission.)

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Fig. 23

CFD–LES results of static pressure on the axis of the pipe; u = 18 m/s, t = 0.3047 s: (a) axial pressure, (b) pressure contours (pitch = 5.3 mm, length of the pipe = 0.614 m, total number of corrugation = 106). (Reprinted from Ref. [82] with permission.)

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Fig. 24

Comparison of sound pressure level (dB) versus spectral frequency (Hz) for (a) smooth corrugated tube and (b) wrinkled corrugated tube. (Adopted from Ref. [17] with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 25

Sound pressure level (dB) versus Whistling frequency (Hz) for (a) “Single” corrugation and different upstream lengths, and (b) “188” corrugations and different upstream lengths. (a) for “Single” corrugation, pitch 6 mm, depth 5 mm; (b) for 188 corrugations, pitch 6 mm; L1 = 0.63 m, L2 = 1.33 m. (Adopted from Ref. [17] with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 26

Suppression of whistling amplitude in a corrugated tube using active control technique [21]

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Fig. 20

Types of corrugated pipe used for DNS [79] and LES [83] flow simulations

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Fig. 21

Streamlines and contours of pressure (dark gray represents low pressure) for laminar flow at ReD = 2050, geometry case G, CFD–DNS simulation [79], and Fluent LES simulation [83]

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