The design of structures with a nonuniform stress field is of great industrial interest. The ability of the size effect law and critical distance theories to predict the nominal strength of notched and open hole specimens is analyzed in the present paper. The results obtained with these methods are compared with the solution of the problem computed, taking into account the material cohesive law. A conclusion of this paper is that the role of the critical fracture energy in determining the structural strength is negligible, except in large cracked structures. For unnotched structures of any size and for small cracked structures, the key parameter is the initial part of the softening cohesive law. This allows us to define design charts that relate the structural strength to a specimen size normalized with respect to a material characteristic length.