0
Review Articles

Dynamic Testing and Characterization of Woven/Braided Polymer Composites: A Review

[+] Author and Article Information
Wieslaw K. Binienda

Civil Engineering Department,
The University of Akron,
Akron, OH 44325
e-mail: wbinienda@uakron.edu

Robert K. Goldberg

NASA Glenn Research Center,
Cleveland, OH 44135
e-mail: robert.k.goldberg@nasa.gov

Manuscript received May 18, 2010; final manuscript received October 18, 2012; published online November 15, 2012. Editor: Harry Dankowicz.

Appl. Mech. Rev 64(5), 050803 (Nov 15, 2012) (16 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007873 History: Received May 18, 2010; Revised October 18, 2012

Woven and braided polymer composite structures are used in many primary aerospace applications because of their superior behavior under dynamic loading conditions and light weight. Characterization of all anisotropic properties under various strain rate and temperature conditions becomes essential for analysis, design, and numerical simulations. This paper aims to present a review of critical testing methods of polymer and composite materials. In the second part, a review of numerical and analytical models for the dynamic analysis of woven and braided composites is presented. This review article cites 138 references.

Copyright © 2011 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Field, J. E., Walley, S. M., Proud, W. G., Goldrein, H. T., and Siviour, C. R., 2004, “Review of Experimental Techniques for High Strain Rate Deformation and Shock Studies,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 30, pp. 725–775. [CrossRef]
Bakker, A., 2002, “Impact Induced Propagation of Phase Transformation in a Shape Memory Alloy Rod,” Int. J. Plast., 18, pp. 1447–1479. [CrossRef]
Cazamias, J. U., 2002, “Bar Impact Tests on Alumina (AD995),” Shock Compression of Condensed Mater—2001, M. D.Furnish, N. N.Thadhani, and Y.Horie, eds., American Institute of Physics, Melville, NY, pp. 787–790.
Gray, G. T., III, 2000, “Shock Wave Testing of Ductile Materials,” ASM Handbook, Vol. 8, H.Kuhn and D.Medlin, eds., American Society of Metals, Materials Park, OH, pp. 530–538.
Ravi-Chandar, K., 2005, Dynamic Fracture, Wiley, New York.
Sturges, J. L., and Cole, B. N., 2001, “The Flying Wedge: A Method for High-Strain-Rate Tensile Testing—Part 1: Reason for Its Development and General Description,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 25, pp. 251–264. [CrossRef]
Beard, S. J., and Chang, F. K., 2002, “Energy Absorption of Braided Composite Tubes,” Int. J. Crashworthiness, 7(2), pp. 191–206. [CrossRef]
Federal Aviation Administration, 1984, “Blade Containment and Rotor Unbalance Tests,” Report FAR 33.94.
Hamouda, A. M. S., and Hashmi, M. S. J., 1998, “Testing of Composite Materials at High Rates of Strain: Advances and Challenges,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 77, pp. 327–336. [CrossRef]
Hsiao, H. M., and Daniel, I. M., 1998, “Strain Rate Behavior of Composite Materials,” Composites Part B, 29, pp. 521–533. [CrossRef]
Shim, V. P. W., Lim, C. T., and Foo, K. J., 2001, “Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Fabric Armor,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 25, pp. 1–15. [CrossRef]
Akil, Ö., Yildirim, U., Güden, M., and Hall, I. W., 2003, “Effect of Strain Rate on the Compression Behavior of a Woven Fabric S2-Glass Fiber Reinforced Vinyl Ester Composite,” Polym. Testing, 22, pp. 883–887. [CrossRef]
Harding, J. W., 1987, Materials at High Strain Rates, T. Z.Blazynski, ed., Elsevier Applied Science, New York, pp. 133–186.
Gilat, A., Goldberg, R. K., and Roberts, G. D., 2002, “Experimental Study of Rate Dependent Behavior of Carbon/Epoxy Composite,” Composite Sci. Technol., 62, pp. 1469–1476. [CrossRef]
Teratsubo, M., Tanaka, Y., and Saeki, S., 2002, “Measurement of Stress and Strain During Tensile Testing of Gellan Gum Gels: Effect of Deformation Speed,” Carbohydrate Polym., 47, pp. 1–5. [CrossRef]
Li, Z. H., and Lambros, J., 2001, “Strain Rate Effects on the Thermomechanical Behavior of Polymers,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 38, pp. 3549–3562. [CrossRef]
Arruda, E. M., Boyce, M. C., and Jayachandran, R., 1995, “Effects of Strain Rate, Temperature and Thermomechanical Coupling on the Finite Strain Deformation of Glassy Polymers,” Mech. Mater., 19, pp. 193–212. [CrossRef]
Spitzig, W. A., and Richmond, O., 1979, “Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on the Deformation Behavior of Polyethylene and Polycarbonate in Tension and in Compression,” Polym. Eng. Sci., 19(16), pp. 1129–1139. [CrossRef]
Ward, I. M., and Sweeney, J., 2004, An Introduction to the Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers, 2nd ed., John Wiley, London.
Chang, W. J., and Pan, J., 1997, “Effects of Yield Surface Shape and Round-Off Vertex on Crack-Tip Fields for Pressure-Sensitive Materials,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 34, pp. 3291–3320. [CrossRef]
Shen, X., Xia, Z., and Ellyin, F., 2004, “Cyclic Deformation Behavior of an Epoxy Polymer, Part I: Experimental Investigation,” Polym. Eng. Sci., 44, pp. 2240–2246. [CrossRef]
ASTM D 638, 2004, “Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics.”
ASTM E 2207, 2002, “Standard Practice for Strain-Controlled Axial-Torsional Fatigue Testing With Thin-Walled Tubular Specimens.”
Littell, J. D., Ruggeri, C. R., Goldberg, R. K., Roberts, G. D., and Binienda, W. K., 2008, “Measurement of Epoxy Resin Tension, Compression, and Shear Stress-Strain Curves Over a Wide Range of Strain Rates Using Small Test Specimens,” J. Aerospace Eng., 21, pp. 162–173. [CrossRef]
Frantz, C. E., Follansbee, P. S., and Wright, W. T., 1984, “Experimental Techniques With the Hopkinson Pressure Bar,” Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on High Energy Rate Fabrication, San Antonio, TX, pp. 229–236.
Chen, W., Lu, F., Frew, D. J., and Forrestal, M. J., 2002, “Dynamic Compression Testing of Soft Materials,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 69, pp. 214–223. [CrossRef]
Gray, D. T., III, and Blumenthal, W. R., 2000, “Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar Testing of Soft Materials,” ASM Handbook, Vol. 8, H.Kuhn and D.Medlin, eds., American Society of Metals, Materials Park, OH, pp. 462–476.
Gilat, A., 2000, “Torsional Kolsky Bar Testing,” ASM Metals Handbook, Vol. 8, American Society of Metals, Materials Park, OH, pp. 505–515.
Davies, E. D. H., and Hunter, S. C., 1963, “Dynamic Compression Testing of Solids by the Method of the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB),” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 11, pp. 155–179. [CrossRef]
Casem, D. T., Fourney, W., and Chang, P., 2003, “Wave Separation in Viscoelastic Pressure Bar Using Single-Point Measurements of Strain and Velocity,” Polym. Testing, 22, pp. 155–164. [CrossRef]
Gilat, A., Goldberg, R. K., and Roberts, G., 2005, “Strain Rate Sensitivity of Epoxy Resin in Tensile and Shear Loading,” Report. No. NASA/TM-2005-213595.
Bordonaro, C., 1995, “Rate Dependent Mechanical Behavior of High Strength Plastics: Experiment and Modeling,” Ph.D. dissertation, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.
Liang, Y. M., and Liechti, K. M., 1996, “On the Large Deformation and Localization Behavior of an Epoxy Resin Under Multiaxial Stress States,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 33(10), pp. 1479–1500. [CrossRef]
Behzadi, S., and Jones, F. R., 2005, “Yielding Behavior of Model Epoxy Matrices for Fiber Reinforced Composites: Effect of Strain Rate and Temperature,” J. Macromol. Sci., Part B: Physics, 44(6), pp. 993–1005. [CrossRef]
Kontou, E., 2006, “Viscoplastic Deformation of an Epoxy Resin at Elevated Temperatures,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 101(3), pp. 2027–2033. [CrossRef]
Buckley, C. P., Harding, J., Hou, J. P., Ruiz, C., and Trojanowski, A., 2001, “Deformation of Thermosetting Resins at Impact Rates of Strain—Part I: Experimental Study,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 49(7), pp. 1517–1538. [CrossRef]
ASTM D 3039, 2000, “Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer Matrix Composites.”
ASTM D 3410, 2003, “Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials With Unsupported Gage Section by Shear Loading.”
ASTM D 6484, 2004, “Standard Test Methods for Open-Hole Compressive Strength of Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates.”
ASTM D 5379, 2005, “Standard Test Method for Shear Properties of Composite Materials by the V-Notched Beam Method.”
ASTM D 3518, 1994, “Standard Test Method for In-Plane Shear Response of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials by Tensile Test of a ±45° Laminate.”
Tsotsis, T. K., Rugg, K. L., and Cox, B. N., 2006, “Towards Rapid Screening of New Composite Matrix Resins,” Composites Sci. Technol., 66(11–12), pp. 1651–1670. [CrossRef]
ASTM MIL-HDBK-17, 2002, “Composite Materials Handbook,” Vol. 17.
Tomblin, J., Abbott, R., and Stenard, S., 2001, “Material Qualification Methodology for 2X2 Biaxaially Braided RTM Composite Material Systems,” AGATE Report No. WP3.3-033048-116.
Federal Aviation Administration, 2003, “Material Qualification and Equivalency for Polymer Matrix Composite Material Systems: Updated Procedure,” Report No. DOT/FAA/AR-03/19.
Masters, J. E., Foye, R. L., Pastore, C. M., and Gowayed, Y. A., 1993, “Mechanical Properties of Triaxially Braided Composites: Experimental and Analytical Results,” J. Composites Technol. Res., 15(2), pp. 112–122. [CrossRef]
Masters, J. E., and Portanova, M. A., 1996, “Standard Test Methods of Textile Composites,” Report No. NASA-CR-4751.
Masters, J. E., 1996, “Strain Gage Selection Criteria for Textile Composite Materials,” Report No. NASA-CR-198286.
Masters, J. E., and Ifju, P. G., 1996, “A Phenomenological Study of Triaxially Braided Textile Composites Loaded in Tension,” Composites Sci. Technol., 56(3), pp. 347–358. [CrossRef]
Grediac, M., 2004, “The Use of Full-Field Measurement Methods in Composite Material Characterization: Interest and Limitations,” Composites Part A: Appl. Sci. Manufact., 35(7–8), pp. 751–761. [CrossRef]
Gliesche, K., Hübner, T., and Orawetz, H., 2005, “Investigations of In-Plane Shear Properties of ±45° Carbon/Epoxy Composite Using Tensile Testing and Optical Deformation Analysis,” Composites Sci. Technol., 65(2), pp. 163–171. [CrossRef]
Hale, R. D., 2003, “An Experimental Investigation Into Strain Distribution in 2D and 3D Textile Composites,” Composites Sci. Technol., 63(15), pp. 2171–2185. [CrossRef]
Fergusson, A. D., Puri, A., Morris, A., and Dear, J. P., 2006, “Flexural Testing of Composite Sandwich Structures With Digital Speckle Photogrammetry,” Appl. Mech. Mater., 8, pp. 135–143. [CrossRef]
Drzal, L. T., Herrera-Franco, P., and Ho, H., 2000, “Fiber-Matrix Interface Tests,” Comprehensive Composite Materials: Test Methods, Nondestructive Evaluation and Smart Materials, Vol. 5, L.Carlsson, R. L.Crane and K.Uchino, eds., Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 71–111.
Madhukar, M. S., and Drzal, L. T., 1992, “Fiber-Matrix Adhesion and Its Effect on Composite Properties. III. Longitudinal Compressive Properties of Graphite/Epoxy Composites,” J. Composite Mater., 26(3), pp. 310–333. [CrossRef]
Madhukar, M. S., and Drzal, L. T., 1991, “Fiber-Matrix Adhesion and Its Effect on Composite Properties: II. Longitudinal and Transverse Tensile and Flexure Behavior of Graphite/Epoxy Composites,” J. Composite Mater., 25(8), pp. 958–991. [CrossRef]
Haselbach, W., and Lauke, B., 2003, “Acoustic Emission of Debonding Between Fibre and Matrix to Evaluate Local Adhesion,” Composites Sci. Technol., 63(15), pp. 2155–2162 [CrossRef].
Todoroki, A., and Tanaka, Y., 2002, “Delamination Identification of Cross-Ply Graphite/Epoxy Composite Beams Using Electric Resistance Change Method,” Composites Sci. Technol., 62(5), pp. 629–639. [CrossRef]
Hoecker, F., Friedrich, K., Blumberg, H., and Karger-Kocsis, J., 1995, “Effects of Fiber/Matrix Adhesion on Off-Axial Mechanical Response in Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy-Resin Composites,” Composites Sci. Technol., 54(3), pp. 317–327. [CrossRef]
Warrior, N. A., and Fernie, R., 2004, “High Strain Rate Tensile and Compressive Testing of Braided Composite Materials,” Appl. Mech. Mater., 1–2, pp. 217–224. [CrossRef]
Quek, S. C., Waas, A., Shahwan, K. W., and Agaram, V., 2004, “Compressive Response and Failure of Braided Textile Composites: Part 1—Experiments,” Int. J. Non-Linear Mech., 39(4), pp. 635–648. [CrossRef]
Kurath, P., and Karayaka, M., 1994, “Deformation and Failure Behaviour of Woven Composite Laminates,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 116, pp. 222–232. [CrossRef]
Littell, J. D., Binienda, W. K., Arnold, W. A., Roberts, G. D., and Goldberg, R. K., 2009, “Effect of Microscopic Damage Events on Static and Ballistic Impact Strength of Tri-Axial Braided Composites,” Composites Part A, 40, pp. 1846–1862. [CrossRef]
Flanagan, M. P., Zikry, M. A., Wall, J. W., and El-Shiekh, A., 1999, “An Experimental Investigation of High Velocity Impact and Penetration Failure Modes in Textile Composites,” J. Composite Mater., 33(12), pp. 1080–1103. [CrossRef]
Beard, S., and Chang, F. K., 2002, “Design of Braided Composites for Energy Absorption,” J. Thermoplastic Composites Mater., 15, pp. 3–12. [CrossRef]
Janapala, N. R., Wu, Z., Chang, F. K., and Goldberg, R. K., 2008, “Lateral Crashing of Tri-Axially Braided Composite Tubes,” Proceedings of Earth and Space 2008 Conference, ASCE. [CrossRef]
Flesher, N. D., 2006, “Crash Energy Absorption of Braided Composite Tubes,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
Challita, A., and Barber, J. P., 1979, “The Scaling of Bird Impact Loads,” University of Dayton Research Institute.
Wilbeck, J. S., 1977, “Impact Behavior of Low Strength Projectiles,” Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
Pereira, J. M., and Revilock, D. M., 2008, “Pressure Measured in Ballistic Impact Testing of Simulated Birds,” Report No. NASA/TM-2008-215054. Available at http://naca.larc.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090022025&qs=Ns%3DNASA-Center%7C0%26N%3D4294911125
Cheeseman, B. A., and Bogetti, T. A., 2003, “Ballistic Impact Into Fabric and Compliant Composite Laminates,” Composite Struct., 61, pp. 161–173. [CrossRef]
Naik, N. K., and Shrirao, P., 2004, “Composite Structures Under Ballistic Impact,” Composite Struct., 66, pp. 579–590. [CrossRef]
Roberts, G. D., Pereira, J. M., Revilock, D. M., Binienda, W. K., Xie, M., and Braley, M., 2003, “Ballistic Impact of Composite Plates and Half-Rings With Soft Projectiles,” 44th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Norfolk, VA, 7–10 April.
Ruggeri, C., 2009, “High Strain Rate Data Acquisition of 2D Braided Composite Substructures,” M.S. thesis, The University of Akron, Akron, OH.
Daniel, I. M., Hsiao, H. M., and Cordes, R. D., 1995, “Dynamic Response of Carbon/Epoxy Composites,” High Strain Rate Effects on Polymer, Metal and Ceramic Matrix Composites and Other Advanced Materials, AD-Vol. 48, Y. D. S.Rajapakse and J. R.Vinson, eds., ASME, pp. 167–177.
Daniel, I. M., Hamilton, W. G., and LaBedz, R. H., 1982, “Strain Rate Characterization of Unidirectional Graphite/Epoxy Composite,” Composite Materials: Testing and Design (6th Conference, ASTM STP 787), I. M. Daniel, ed., American Society of Testing and Materials, pp. 393–413.
Al-Salehi, F. A. R., Al-Hassani, S. T. S., and Hinton, M. J., 1989, “An Experimental Investigation Into the Strength of Angle Ply GRP Tubes Under High Rates of Loading,” J. Composite Mater., 23, pp. 288–305. [CrossRef]
Wineman, A. S., and Rajagopal, K. R., 2000, Mechanical Response of Polymers, Cambridge University Press, New York.
Cessna, L. C., Jr., and Sternstein, S. S., 1967, “Viscoelasticity and Plasticity Considerations in the Fracture of Glasslike High Polymers,” Fundamental Phenomena in the Material Sciences, Vol. 4, Fracture of Metals, Polymers and Glasses, L. J.Broutman, J. J.Duga, and J. J.Gilman, eds., Plenum, New York, p. 45.
Li, F. Z., and Pan, J., 1990, “Plane-Stress Crack-Tip Fields for Pressure-Sensitive Dilatant Materials,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 57, pp. 40–49. [CrossRef]
Khan, A. S., and Huang, S., 1995, Continuum Theory of Plasticity, John Wiley, New York.
Hsu, S.-Y., Vogler, T. J., and Kyriakides, S., 1999, “Inelastic Behavior of an AS4/PEEK Composite Under Combined Transverse Compression and Shear—Part II: Modeling,” Int. J. Plasticity, 15, pp. 807–836. [CrossRef]
Kolling, S., Haufe, A., Feucht, M., and Du Bois, P. A., 2005, “SAMP-1: A Semi-Analytical Model for the Simulation of Polymers,” 4th LS-DYNA Forum, Conference Proceedings, Germany, pp. A-II-27/52.
Kolling, S., Haufe, A., Feucht, M., and Du Bois, P. A., 2006, “A Constitutive Formulation for Polymers Subject to High Strain Rates,” Proc. 9th Int. LS-DYNA Users Conference, Vol. 15, Livermore Softward Technology Company, Livermore, CA, pp. 55–74.
Du Bois, P. A., Kolling, S., Koesters, M., and Frank, T., 2006, “Material Behavior of Polymers Under Impact Loading,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 32, pp. 725–740. [CrossRef]
Shaban, A., Mahnken, R., Wilke, L., Potente, H., and Ridder, H., 2007, “Simulation of Rate Dependent Plasticity for Polymers With Asymmetric Effects,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 44, pp. 6148–6162. [CrossRef]
Krempl, E., McMahon, J. J., and Yao, D., 1986, “Viscoplasticity Based on Overstress With a Differential Growth Law for the Equilibrium Stress,” Mech. Mater., 5, p. 35. [CrossRef]
Stouffer, D. C., and Dame, L. T., 1996, Inelastic Deformation of Metals. Models, Mechanical Properties and Metallurgy, John Wiley, New York.
Krempl, E., and Ho, K., 2000, “An Overstress Model for Solid Polymer Deformation Behavior Applied to Nylon 66,” Time Dependent and Nonlinear Effects in Polymers and Composites (ASTM STP 1357), R. A.Schapery and C. T.Sun, eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, pp. 118–137.
Colak, O. U., 2005, “Modeling Deformation Behavior of Polymers With Viscoplasticity Theory Based on Overstress,” Int. J. Plasticity, 21, pp. 145–160. [CrossRef]
Goldberg, R. K., Roberts, G. D., and Gilat, A., 2003, “Incorporation of Mean Stress Effects into the Micromechanical Analysis of the High Strain Rate Response of Polymer Matrix Composites,” Composites Part B: Eng., 34, pp. 151–165. [CrossRef]
Goldberg, R. K., Roberts, G. D., and Gilat, A., 2005, “Implementation of an Associative Flow Rule Including Hydrostatic Stress Effects Into the High Strain Rate Deformation Analysis of Polymer Matrix Composites,” J. Aerosp. Eng., 18, pp. 18–27. [CrossRef]
Goldberg, R. K., Roberts, G. D., Littell, J. D., and Binienda, W. K., 2008, “Approximation of Nonlinear Unloading Effects in the Strain Rate Dependent Deformation Analysis of Polymer Matrix Materials Utilizing a State Variable Approach,” J. Aerosp. Eng., 21, pp. 119–131. [CrossRef]
Bodner, S. R., 2002, Unified Plasticity for Engineering Applications, Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York.
Zheng, X., and Binienda, W. K., 2008, “Rate-Dependent Shell Element Composite Material Model Implementation in LS-DYNA,” J. Aerosp. Eng., 21, pp. 140–151. [CrossRef]
Salas, P. A., Benson, D. J., Venkataraman, S., and Loikkanen, M. J., 2009, “Numerical Implementation of Polymer Viscoelastic Equations for High Strain-Rate Composite Models,” J. Aerosp. Eng., 22, pp. 304–309. [CrossRef]
Gerlach, R., Siviour, C. R., Petrinic, N., and Wiegand, J., 2008, “Experimental Characterization and Constitutive Modeling of RTM-6 Resin Under Impact Loading,” Polymer, 49, pp. 2728–2737. [CrossRef]
Boyce, M. C., Parks, D. M., and Argon, A. S., 1988, “Large Inelastic Deformation of Glassy Polymers—Part I: Rate Dependent Constitutive Model,” Mech. Mater., 7, pp. 15–33. [CrossRef]
Hasan, O. A., and Boyce, M. C., 1995, “A Constitutive Model for the Nonlinear Viscoelastic Viscoplastic Behavior of Glassy Polymers,” Polym. Eng. Sci., 35, pp. 331–344. [CrossRef]
Chowdhury, K. A., Benzerga, A. A., and Talreja, R., 2008, “A Computational Framework for Analyzing the Dynamic Response of Glassy Polymers,” Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 197, pp. 4485–4502. [CrossRef]
Chowdhury, K. A., Benzerga, A. A., and Talreja, R., 2008, “An Analysis of Impact-Induced Deformation and Fracture Modes in Amorphous Glassy Polymers,” Eng. Fracture Mech., 75, pp. 3328–3342. [CrossRef]
Chowdhury, K. A., Talreja, R., and Benzerga, A. A., 2008, “Effects of Manufacturing-Induced Voids on Local Failure in Polymer-Based Composites,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 130, p. 021010. [CrossRef]
Benzerga, A. A., Poulain, X., Chowdhury, K. A., and Talreja, R., 2009, “Computational Methodology for Modeling Fracture in Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites,” J. Aerosp. Eng., 22, pp. 296–303. [CrossRef]
Liu, K. C., Hiche, C., and Chattopadhyay, A., 2009, “Low Speed Projectile Impact Damage Prediction and Propagation in Woven Composites,” 50th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, Materials Conference and 17th AIAA/ASME/AHS Adaptive Structures Conference, Palm Springs, CA, 4–7 May.
Paley, M., and Aboudi, J., 1992, “Micromechanical Analysis of Composites by the Generalized Cells Model,” Mech. Mater., 14, pp. 127–139. [CrossRef]
Pindera, M. J., and Bednarcyk, B. A., 1990, “An Efficient Implementation of the Generalized Method of Cells for Unidirectional, Multiphased Composites With Complex Microstructures,” Composites Part B: Eng., 30, pp. 87–105. [CrossRef]
Flesher, N. D., and Chang, F. K., 2004, “Modeling and Response of Braided Composites With Stress Concentrations,” 11th US-Japan Conference on Composite Materials, Yonezawa, Japan, September 9–11.
Janapala, N. R., Wu, Z., Chang, F. K., and Goldberg, R. K., 2008, “Lateral Crashing of Tri-Axially Braided Composite Tubes,” Earth & Space Conference 2008, 11th International Conference on Engineering, Science, Construction, and Operations in Challenging Environments, ASCE Technical Activities Committee, Aerospace Division, Long Beach, CA, March 3–5.
Aminjikarai, S. B., and Tabiei, A., 2007, “A Strain-Rate Dependent E-D Micromechanical Model for Finite Element Simulations of Plain Weave Composite Structures,” Composite Struct., 81, pp. 407–418. [CrossRef]
Tanov, R., and Tabiei, A., 2001, “Computationally Efficient Micromechanical Models for Woven Fabric Composite Elastic Moduli,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 68, pp. 553–560. [CrossRef]
Goldberg, R. K., and Stouffer, D. C., 2002, “Strain Rate Dependent Analysis of a Polymer Matrix Composite Utilizing a Micromechanics Approach,” J. Composite Mater., 36, pp. 773–793. [CrossRef]
Ivanov, I., and Tabiei, A., 2001, “Three-Dimensional Computational Micro-Mechanical Model for Woven Fabric Composites,” Composite Struct., 54, pp. 489–496. [CrossRef]
Tabiei, A., and Ivanov, I., 2004, “Material and Geometrically Non-Linear Composite Micro-Mechanical Model With Failure for Finite Element Simulations,” Int. J. Non-Linear Mech., 39, pp. 175–188. [CrossRef]
Tabiei, A., and Ivanov, I., 2007, “Micro-Mechanical Model With Strain-Rate Dependency and Damage for Impact Simulation of Woven Fabric Composites,” Mech. Adv. Materi. Struct., 14, pp. 365–377. [CrossRef]
Sun, B., Liu, Y., and Gu, B., 2009, “A Unit Cell Approach of Finite Element Calculation of Ballistic Impact Damage of 3-D Orthogonal Woven Composite,” Composites Part B, 40, pp. 552–560. [CrossRef]
Bahei-El-Din, Y. A., Rajendran, A. M., and Zikry, M. A., 2004, “A Micromechanical Model for Damage Progression in Woven Composite Systems,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 41, pp. 2307–2330. [CrossRef]
Bahei-El-Din, Y. A., and Zikry, M. A., 2003, “Impact-Induced Deformation Fields in 2D and 3D Woven Composites,” Composites Sci. Technol., 63, pp. 923–942. [CrossRef]
Hur, H.-K., Johnson, E. R., and Kapania, R. K., 2006, “Degraded Strength Prediction of Micro-Cracked Plain Woven Textile Composites,” AIAA 47th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Newport, RI, May 1–4.
Hur, H.-K., and Kapania, R. K., 2007, “Impact of Plain Woven Textile-Ceramic Plates Using Macro/Meso Modeling,” 48th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Honolulu, HI, April 23–26.
Hur, H.-K., Park, J., and Kapania, R. K., 2008, “The Ballistic Impact Model of Plain Woven Textile Structures Using Different Meso-scaled Yarns,” 49th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Schaumburg, IL, April 7–10.
Wei, J., Liu, K. C., and Chattopadhyay, A., 2008, “3D Simulation of High Velocity Ballistic Impact on Plain Weave Composites With Embedded FBG Sensors,” 49th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Schaumburg, IL, April 7–10.
Zhu, L., Chattopadhyay, A., and Goldberg, R. K., 2006, “A 3D Micromechanics Model for Strain Rate Dependent Inelastic Polymer Matrix Composites,” 47th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, Newport, RI, May 1–4.
Cheng, J., and Binienda, W. K., 2008, “Simplified Braiding Through Integration Points Model for Triaxially Braided Composites,” J. Aerosp. Eng., 21, pp. 152–161. [CrossRef]
Roberts, G. D., Goldberg, R. K., Biniendak, W. K., Arnold, W. A., Littell, J. D., and Kohlman, L. W., 2009, “Characterization of Triaxial Braided Composite Material Properties for Impact Simulation,” Report No. NASA/TM-2009-215660.
Livermore Software Technology Corporation, 2007, LS-DYNA Keyword Manual v. 971, Livermore, CA.
Matzenmiller, A., Lubliner, J., and Taylor, R. L., 1995, “A Constitutive Model for Anisotropic Damage in Fiber-Composites,” Mech. Mater., 20, pp. 125–152. [CrossRef]
Hashin, Z., 1980, “Failure Criteria for Unidirectional Fiber Composites,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 47, pp. 329–334. [CrossRef]
Schweizerhof, K., Weimar, K., Munz, T., and Rottner, T., 1998, “Crashworthiness Analysis With Enhanced Composite Material Models in LS-DYNA-Merits and Limits,” LS-DYNA World Conference, Detroit, MI.
Williams, K. V., Vaziri, R., and Poursartip, A., 2003, “A Physically Based Continuum Damage Mechanics Model for Thin Laminated Composite Structures,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 40, pp. 2267–2300. [CrossRef]
Xiao, X., McGregor, C., Vaziri, R., and Poursartip, A., 2009, “Progress in Braided Composite Tube Crush Simulation,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 36, pp. 711–719. [CrossRef]
Pickett, A. K., and Fouinneteau, M. R. C., 2006, “Material Characterization and Calibration of a Meso-Mechanical Damage Model for Braid Reinforced Composites,” Composites Part A, 37, pp. 268–377. [CrossRef]
Fouinneteau, M. R. C., and Pickett, A. K., 2007, “Shear Mechanism Modeling of Heavy Tow Braided Composites Using a Meso-Mechanical Damage Model,” Composites Part A, 38, pp. 2294–2306. [CrossRef]
Iannucci, L., 2006, “Progressive Failure Modeling of Woven Carbon Composite Under Impact,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 32, pp. 1013–1043. [CrossRef]
Iannucci, L., and Willows, M. L., 2007, “An Energy Based Damage Mechanics Approach to Modeling Impact Onto Woven Composite Materials: Part II. Experimental and Numerical Results,” Composites Part A, 38, pp. 540–554. [CrossRef]
Schwer, L. E., and Whirley, R. G., 1999, “Impact of a 3D Woven Textile Composite Thin Panel: Damage and Failure Modeling,” Mech. Composite Mater. Struct., 6, pp. 9–30. [CrossRef]
Naik, N. K., Shrirao, P., and Reddy, B. C. K., 2006, “Ballistic Impact Behavior of Woven Fabric Composites: Formulation,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 32, pp. 1521–1552. [CrossRef]
Jenq, S. T., Jing, H.-S., and Chung, C., 1994, “Predicting the Ballistic Limit for Plain Woven Glass/Epoxy Composite Laminate,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 15, pp. 451–464. [CrossRef]
Jenq, S. T., and Mo, J. J., 1996, “Ballistic Impact Response for Two-Step Braided Three-Dimensional Textile Composites,” AIAA J., 34(2), pp. 375–384. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Typical stress-strain curves of polymers under uniaxial tension

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic demonstration of polymer stress-strain curves under different testing temperatures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic demonstration of strain rate effects on polymer stress-strain curves

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Room temperature tension test results for E862 epoxy (Littell et al. [24], with permission from ASCE)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Room temperature torsion test results for E862 epoxy (Littell et al. [24], with permission from ASCE)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Tension test results for E862 epoxy under various temperatures at 10−1 strain rate loading conditions (Littell et al. [24], with permission from ASCE)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Torsion test results for E862 epoxy under various temperatures at 10−1 strain rate loading conditions (Littell et al. [24], with permission from ASCE)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Subcell based discretization of woven composite unit cell by Aminjikarai and Tabiei [109] (with permission from Elsevier)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Analysis of the rate dependent tensile stress-strain response of a glass-epoxy plain weave composite by Aminjikarai and Tabiei [109] (with permission from Elsevier)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Damage patterns predicted in a crush test of a braided composite. The local damage patterns were related to matrix damage (Janapala et al. [108], with permission from ASCE).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Illustration of the homogenization approach from fiber tow, up through composite structure applied by Janapala et al. [108] (with permission from ASCE)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Effect of incorporating hydrostatic stress effects into simulation of uniaxial tensile response of PR520 polymer (Goldberg et al. [92], with permission from ASCE)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Simulation of uniaxial tensile stress-strain response of PR520 polymer over a variety of strain rates (Goldberg et al. [92], with permission from ASCE)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Simulation of shear stress-shear strain response of PR520 polymer over a variety of strain rates (Goldberg et al. [92], with permission from ASCE)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Simulation of the nonlinear, strain rate dependent response of polyphenylene including nonlinear unloading by use of the viscoplasticity theory based on overstress (Colak [90], with permission from Elsevier)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Stress contours and damage patterns obtained by simulation of a projectile impact into an orthogonally woven polymer matrix composite (Sun et al. [115], with permission from Elsevier)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Subcell based discretization of braided composite unit cell developed by Littell et al. [63] (with permission from Elsevier)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Simulation of the axial crush response of braided composite tubes utilizing continuum damage mechanics model (Xiao et al. [130], with permission from Elsevier)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Experimentally obtained impact damage patterns obtained by Iannucci [133] (with permission from Elsevier)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Simulation of a composite impact test using the Iannucci model [133] (with permission from Elsevier)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In