Review Articles

Mathematical Modeling of Skin Bioheat Transfer

[+] Author and Article Information
F. Xu

Department of Engineering, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK; Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139

T. J. Lu1

MOE Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, P.R. Chinatjlu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

K. A. Seffen

Department of Engineering, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK

E. Y. K. Ng

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore, Singapore

An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience as defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP).

The method using the Green's function to solve heat transfer problem where Green's function is a type of function used to solve inhomogeneous differential equations subject to boundary conditions.

An unusual oscillation of tissue temperature with heating.

Temperature jumps that can be regarded as wave front.

The penetration time is the period between the appearance of temperature jump (thermal wave front) and start of heating at a measurement point.

The experiments were designed to show that heat waves take a finite time to reach a particular point inside the sample, contrary to the instantaneous heat propagation as predicted by the Fourier model: Two identical meat samples at different initial temperatures were brought into contact with each other.

The experiments were designed to show wave superposition: One thin sample is sandwiched by two larger ones.

A flow regime that follows Darcy's law. In fluid dynamics, Darcy's law is a phenomenologically derived constitutive equation that describes the flow of a fluid through a porous medium (356) "Darcy's law," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Darcy's_law.

Perspiration that evaporates before it is perceived as moisture on the skin.

A heat pipe is a heat transfer mechanism that can transport large quantities of heat with a very small difference in temperature between the hotter and colder interfaces (359) "Heat pipe," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_pipe. Inside a heat pipe, at the hot interface, a fluid turns to vapor and the gas naturally flows and condenses on the cold interface; the liquid falls or is moved by capillary action back to the hot interface to evaporate again and repeat the cycle.


Corresponding author.

Appl. Mech. Rev 62(5), 050801 (Jul 09, 2009) (35 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3124646 History: Received March 04, 2008; Revised February 14, 2009; Published July 09, 2009

Advances in laser, microwave, and similar technologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments for disease and injury involving skin tissue. In spite of the widespread use of heating therapies in dermatology, they do not draw upon the detailed understanding of the biothermomechanics of behavior, for none exists to date, even though each behavioral facet is well established and understood. It is proposed that a detailed understanding of the coupled biological-mechanical response under thermal agitation will contribute to the design, characterization, and optimization of strategies for delivering better treatment. For a comprehensive understanding on the underlying mechanisms of thermomechanical behavior of skin tissue, recent progress on bioheat transfer, thermal damage, thermomechanics, and thermal pain should be systematically reviewed. This article focuses on the transfer of heat through skin tissue. Experimental study, theoretical analysis, and numerical modeling of skin thermal behavior are reviewed, with theoretical analysis carried out and closed-form solutions obtained for simple one-layer Fourier theory based model. Non-Fourier bioheat transfer models for skin tissue are discussed, and various skin cooling technologies summarized. Finally, the predictive capacity of various heat transfer models is demonstrated with selected case studies.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 11

Temperature distribution in skin at the end of cooling (t=45 s) for selected heat transfer coefficient at the skin surface

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Figure 12

Heat generation, qext_MW, in skin tissue due to microwave heating

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Figure 1

Schematic of skin biothermomechanics and thermal pain

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Figure 2

(a) Skin structure (445) and (b) corresponding idealized skin model

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Figure 3

Macromolecular components of skin (42)

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Figure 4

Blood circulation in skin (446)

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Figure 5

Regulation of temperature by AVA in skin tissue (447)

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Figure 6

Electromagnetic spectrum (448)

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Figure 7

Schematic of the one-layer skin model

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Figure 8

Comparative study of human skin thermal response to (a) contact cooling and (b) spray cooling (282)

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Figure 9

Temperature distribution in skin at the end of (a) heating, t=15 s, and (b) cooling, t=45 s, for selected blood perfusion rates

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Figure 10

(a) Temperature at the surface of epidermis and (b) at the ED interface for selected blood perfusion rates

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Figure 17

(a) Temperature history at the ED interface and (b) temperature distribution in skin at the end of heating, t=0.1 s, and cooling, t=3 s

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Figure 18

Verification of numerical model: (a) variation in temperature with time at the ED interface and (b) distribution of temperature along skin depth at t=15 s

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Figure 19

Comparison of predictions of temperature from different models: (a) variation with time at the ED interface, (b) variation with time at the DF interface, (c) distribution along skin depth at t=15 s, and (d) distribution along skin depth at t=45 s

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Figure 20

Schematic of the trapped air-hair layer

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Figure 21

Three regions of sweat gland in skin (449): the secretory portion in the dermis, the excretory duct in the dermis, and the spiral course in the epidermis (449)

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Figure 13

(a) Temperature history at the ED interface and DF interface and (b) temperature distribution in skin at the end of heating, t=3 s, and cooling, t=33 s

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Figure 14

Schematic show of heating and cooling processes for laser heating case

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Figure 15

Optical properties of different skin layers

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Figure 16

Heat generation, qext_laser, in skin tissue due to laser heating




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