In this review we will discuss recent experimental and numerical results of quasi-two-dimensional decaying and forced Navier–Stokes turbulence in bounded domains. We will give a concise overview of developments in two-dimensional turbulence research, with emphasis on the progress made during the past 10 years. The scope of this review concerns the self-organization of two-dimensional Navier–Stokes turbulence, the quasi-stationary final states in domains with no-slip boundaries, the role of the lateral no-slip walls on two-dimensional turbulence, and their role on the possible destabilization of domain-sized vortices. The overview of the laboratory experiments on quasi-two-dimensional turbulence is restricted to include only those carried out in thin electromagnetically forced shallow fluid layers and in stratified fluids. The effects of the quasi-two-dimensional character of the turbulence in the laboratory experiments will be discussed briefly. As a supplement, the main results from numerical simulations of forced and decaying two-dimensional turbulence in rectangular and circular domains, thus explicitly taking into account the lateral sidewalls, will be summarized and compared with the experimental observations.