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Review Articles

# Two-Phase Flow Patterns and Flow-Pattern Maps: Fundamentals and Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Lixin Cheng

Laboratory of Heat and Mass Transfer (LTCM), Faculty of Engineering (STI), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 9, Lausanne CH-1015, Switzerlandlixincheng@hotmail.com

Gherhardt Ribatski

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos (EESC), University of São Paulo (USP), São Carlos, São Paulo 13566-590, Brazilribatski@sc.usp.br

John R. Thome

Laboratory of Heat and Mass Transfer (LTCM), Faculty of Engineering (STI), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 9, Lausanne CH-1015, Switzerlandjohn.thome@epfl.ch

Appl. Mech. Rev 61(5), 050802 (Jul 30, 2008) (28 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2955990 History: Received January 23, 2008; Revised February 05, 2008; Published July 30, 2008

## Abstract

A comprehensive review of the studies of gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns and flow-pattern maps at adiabatic and diabatic conditions is presented in this paper. Especially, besides other situations, this review addresses the studies on microscale channels, which are of great interest in recent years. First, a fundamental knowledge of two-phase flow patterns and their application background is briefly introduced. The features of two-phase flow patterns and flow-pattern maps at adiabatic and diabatic conditions are reviewed, including recent studies for ammonia, new refrigerants, and $CO2$. Then, fundamental studies of gas-liquid flow patterns and flow-pattern maps are presented. In the experimental context, studies of flow patterns and flow-pattern maps in macro- and microscale channels, across tube bundles, at diabatic and adiabatic conditions, under microgravity and in complex channels are summarized. In addition, studies on highly viscous Newtonian fluids (non-Newtonian fluids are beyond the scope of this review) are also mentioned. In the theoretical context, modeling of flow-regime transitions, specific flow patterns, stability, and interfacial shear is reviewed. Next, flow-pattern-based heat transfer and pressure drop models and heat transfer models for specific flow patterns such as slug flow and annular flow are reviewed. Based on this review, recommendations for future research directions have been given.

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## Figures

Figure 1

Comparison of various definitions of threshold diameters for microscale channels: (a) water and (b) CO2 by Cheng and Mewes (42)

Figure 2

(a) Schematic of flow patterns in vertical upward gas-liquid cocurrent flow; (b) schematic of flow patterns in horizontal gas-liquid cocurrent flow (1)

Figure 3

Schematic of flow patterns and the corresponding heat transfer mechanisms for upward flow boiling in a vertical tube (1-2)

Figure 4

Schematic of flow patterns and the corresponding heat transfer mechanisms and qualitative variation of the heat transfer coefficients for flow boiling in a horizontal tube (1-2)

Figure 5

Schematic of flow patterns for horizontal gas-liquid cocurrent flow in condensation (49)

Figure 6

The Baker (6) flow-pattern map for horizontal gas-liquid cocurrent flow

Figure 7

The Hewitt and Roberts (5) flow-pattern map for vertical upward gas-liquid cocurrent flow

Figure 8

The Taitel and Dukler (7) flow-pattern map for horizontal gas-liquid cocurrent flow: coordinates of curves A and B are Fr versus X, coordinates of curve C are K versus X, and coordinates of curve D are T versus X

Figure 9

The Kattan–Thome–Favrat flow-pattern map (solid lines) (10-12) compared to the Steiner map (9) (dashed lines) evaluated for R410A at Tsat=5°C in a 13.84mm internal diameter tube at different heat fluxes (36). (A stands for annular flow, I stands for intermittent flow, M stands for mist flow, S stands for stratified flow, and SW stands for stratified-wavy flow. The stratified to stratified-wavy flow transition is designated as S-SW, the stratified-wavy to intermittent/annular flow transition is designated as SW-I∕A, the intermittent to annular flow transition is designated as I-A, and so on.)

Figure 10

The flow-pattern map of Wojtan (18-19) for R22 at Tsat=5°C in a 13.84mm internal diameter tube at G=100kg∕m2s and q=2.1kW∕m2 and the corresponding prediction of heat transfer coefficients (dashed line) based on the map (D stands for the dryout region, slug stands for slug flow, and others have the same meanings as in Fig. 9)

Figure 11

The CO2 flow-pattern map of Cheng (22-23) evaluated for the test condition of Yun (52): Deq=2mm, G=1500kg∕m2s, Tsat=5°C, and q=30kW∕m2 and the corresponding prediction of heat transfer coefficients (dashed line) (B stands for bubbly flow and others have the same meanings as in Figs.  910)

Figure 12

The probabilistic flow map with time fraction curve fits for R134a at 10°C and a mass flux of 50kg∕m2s in a six-port microchannel (data obtained from Niño (53)) by Jassim and Newell (54)

Figure 13

Photographs of flow patterns in a 1.1mm diameter test section of Triplett (47)

Figure 14

Comparison between the experimental flow patterns observed by Triplett (47) for a 1.1mm diameter circular test section to the experimental flow-regime transition lines of Damianides and Westwater (101) based on a 1mm diameter circular test section

Figure 15

Comparison of the predicted flow-regime boundaries of the Ullmann and Brauner (122-123) flow map in a horizontal 1mm tube to the experimental data of Triplett (47), where εG is the cross-sectional void fraction and EoD is the Eotvös number

Figure 16

Wedge flow regime: (a) drying bubble, (b) consecutive images of a hybrid bubble, and (c) lubricated bubble, observed by Cubaud and Ho (94)

Figure 17

Flow patterns in a 0.509mm microchannel for R245fa at 35°C and 500kg∕m2s, observed by Revellin and Thome (90-92) at the exit of a microevaporator channel

Figure 18

Flow-pattern observations With experimental transition lines for R134a, D=0.5mm, L=70.7mm, Tsat=35°C and ΔTsub=5°C using laser plotted in two different formats: (a) flow-pattern observations with transition lines and (b) flow-pattern map by Revellin and Thome (91-92).

Figure 19

Proposed flow-pattern categories in two-phase flow across a tube bundle: (a) bubbly, (b) intermittent, (c) annular, (d) stratified, (e) stratified-spray from Grant and Chisholm (135), and (f) intermittent downward flows, (g) falling film and (h) churn from Xu (134) shown by Ribatski and Thome in Refs. 125-126.

Figure 20

The Coleman and Garimella (144) flow-regime map for R134a condensation in a 4.91mm circular tube

Figure 21

Video images of condensing R-134a at 300kg∕m2s, 500kg∕m2s, and 800kg∕m2s in a smooth tube by Liebenberg and Meyer (136) superimposed on the map of El Hajal (16)

Figure 22

Schematic flow patterns of highly viscous Newtonian fluid two-phase flow in vertical channels: B—bubble flow, S—slug flow, F—froth flow, and A—annular flow observed by Dziubinski (175)

Figure 23

Schematic of the three-zone evaporation model for elongated bubble flow regime by Thome (212)

Figure 24

Comparison of the predicted frictional pressure gradients by the Moreno-Quibén and Thome model to the experimental frictional pressure gradients for R410A at D=8mm, Tsat=5°C, G=350kg∕m2s and q=6–9kW∕m2, where 94.12% of the data were predicted within ±30%(34-36)

Figure 25

Comparison of predicted frictional pressure gradient by the CO2 pressure drop model of Cheng (22) to the experimental data of Bredesen (218) at the experimental conditions: G=400kg∕m2s, Tsat=−10°C, D=7mm, and q=9kW∕m2

Figure 26

Comparison of the predicted pressure drop gradients by the probabilistic model and the measured values for R134a at 10°C in six-port microchannels by Jassim and Newell (54)

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