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The Energy-Absorbing Characteristics of Tubular Structures With Geometric and Material Modifications: An Overview

[+] Author and Article Information
S. Chung Yuen

Blast Impact and Survivability Research Unit (BISRU), Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa

G. N. Nurick

Blast Impact and Survivability Research Unit (BISRU), Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa

Appl. Mech. Rev 61(2), 020802 (Mar 18, 2008) (15 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2885138 History: Published March 18, 2008

For better crashworthiness performance, vehicles must protect its occupants by maintaining structural integrity and converting the large amount of kinetic energy into other forms of energy in a controllable and predictable manner in a crash situation. In doing so, lower crushing force would provide better safety for the vehicle occupants. This paper reviews the axial response of “modified” tubular sections with imperfections and fillers subjected to axial impact loads relevant to the field of structural crashworthiness. The use of imperfections sets the mode and initiation of collapse of a tube at a specific location and reduces the maximum crush force, hence improving the energy-absorbing characteristics of tubular structures. The types of imperfections discussed include prebuckle, parallel and dished indentations, cutouts, stiffeners, fillers, and wrapping.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 15

Deformation behavior of square and circular extrusions as a function of foam filler density (95-96)

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Figure 16

Empty, monotubal filled, and bitubal square crushed specimens (102)

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Figure 17

Square, hexagonal, and octagonal monotubal crushed specimens (102)

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Figure 18

Photographs of sectional front and back views of crushed PVC tubes filled with mixed wood sawdust (107)

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Figure 19

Typical collapse modes of bare brittle metal and plastic metal tube (122): (a) fragmentation mode of a brittle metal tube; (b) concertina (axisymmetric) mode of a plastic metal tube; (c) diamond (asymmetric) mode of a plastic metal tube

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Figure 20

Failed hybrid tubes obtained from the axial crushing test (125): (a) 0deg ply orientation composite tube, (b) 90deg ply orientation composite tube, (c) 0deg∕90deg ply orientation composite tube, and (d) ±45deg ply orientation composite tube

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Figure 1

Typical example of the progressive buckling mode and resultant axial load-displacement curve of a thin-walled square tube (41)

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Figure 2

Imperfections in the tube corners as used by Schriever and Helling (19)

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Figure 3

Shape of (a) full dent and (b) half-dent introduced into the aluminum tube specimen (47)

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Figure 4

Deformed aluminum tubes with schematic of the locations of triggering dent (47)

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Figure 5

Symmetric axial crush response mode—ductile metallic alloy: axial crush specimen and undeformed tube (48)

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Figure 12

The effect of the depth of dished indentations on ultimate buckling load of specimens with opposing combined imperfections (62) (hole diameter, 32mm; depth of indentations increases from left to right)

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Figure 13

Collapse profiles and load-deformation history of spot-welded top-hat sections after impact testing at 10m∕s(79)

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Figure 14

Test foam-filled specimen geometry and typical material behavior (82)

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Figure 6

A typical load-displacement characteristic of aluminum alloy corrugated tubes (59)

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Figure 7

Symmetric deformation of dynamically loaded predented square specimens. Dent depth increases from left to right (60).

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Figure 8

Quasistatically crushed square tubes with opposing parallel cylindrical indentations (62) (depth of indentations increases from left to right)

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Figure 9

Quasistatically collapsed square tubes with opposing dished indentations (62). (The indentations were induced with a hemispherical indenter of radius 100mm and the depth of indentations increases from left to right).

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Figure 10

Quasistatically crushed square tubes with two opposing holes (62) (diameter of the holes increases from left to right—it appears that the size of the first lobe decreases with increasing hole diameter until tearing occurs)

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Figure 11

The effect of the diameter of the holes on ultimate buckling load of specimens with opposing combined imperfections (62) (indentations depth of 3.5–4mm, diameter of hole increases from left to right, G2 has no hole)

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