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REVIEW ARTICLES

Interaction of Ships and Ocean Structures With Ice Loads and Stochastic Ocean Waves

[+] Author and Article Information
R. A. Ibrahim

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202

N. G. Chalhoub

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202

Jeffery Falzarano

School of Naval Architecture, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148

Fine specules, plates, or discoids of ice suspended in water. In rivers and lakes, frazil ice is formed in supercooled turbulent water.

Sea ice is formed by the cooling and freezing of sea water, whereas glacial ice originates on land from snow falling on perennial snow fields.

Superstructure refers to any structure built above the main deck of a ship.

Appl. Mech. Rev 60(5), 246-289 (Sep 01, 2007) (44 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2777172 History:

The influence of floating ice on the dynamic behavior of ships and offshore structures depends on many factors such as ice thickness and its relative speed with respect to the floating structure. The ice resistance to ship motion forms an essential problem in ship design and navigation. Furthermore, local or global ice loads acting on ocean systems are random and nonsmooth when impact interaction takes place. Impact loads on the bow of a ship navigating in solid ice may be modeled by a Poisson law. The measured stress amplitudes on the ship frame at the bow follow an exponential distribution. The nonhomogeneity and difference in ice microstructure, as well as the influence of salt and temperature, result in a great uncertainty in the ice strength. Therefore, the current review article aims at assessing the ice related problems encountered by offshore structures as well as by ships during their navigation. It also discusses the impacts of local and global ice loads on floating structures and reviews their existing probabilistic models. Moreover, this article covers the dynamic interaction of ice with flexible and rigid structures, and ships. In view of ice loads on marine systems, new design regulations have been introduced by international organizations that are involved in the design and building of ships as well as offshore structures. The ship stochastic stability and the first-passage roll stabilization problem associated with random ocean waves will also be described in an attempt to stimulate future research work dealing with ice impact loads. Moreover, due to the lack of research activities addressing the control problem of ships operating in icy waters, the current article will briefly discuss passive and active control schemes developed for controlling the ship roll motion. There are 529 references cited in this review article.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Topics: Stress , Ice , Ships
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Dependence of line load on ice thickness for first-year ice loading on the Beaufort Sea structures for different structures and rubble fields (7)

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Figure 2

Dependence of global pressure on ice thickness for first-year ice loading taken from the Molikpaq, single-steel drilling caisson (SSDC), and Tarsiu caisson structures (7)

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Figure 3

Dependence of the measured ice load on the waterline width (65)

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Figure 4

Dependence of the measured ice load on ice thickness for different slender structures (65)

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Figure 5

Quasistatic response with transient vibration for the structure mass=15,000kg, rate of indentation v=30mm∕s, natural frequency f=2.0Hz, ice thickness h=100mm, indenter width D=100mm(95)

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Figure 6

Dependence of the peak force on the projectile kinetic energy for all normal impact (151)

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Figure 7

Time-history records of impact force for two different impact speeds of layered spherical ice of diameter 42.7mm(151)

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Figure 8

Impact load-time-history record for a typical test with Growler at an impact speed of 2m∕s with the impact plate at 45deg(153)

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Figure 9

Dependence of peak load on impactor speed for plate setting 45deg(153)

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Figure 10

Ice thickness throughout a winter in the Beaufort Sea showing a cold, average, and mild winter (154)

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Figure 11

Global first-year ice loads on the Molikpaq at the Tarsiut P-45 site during the winter of 1984/85 (155)

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Figure 12

Cumulative distributions of the global pressure for level ice loading showing the curves for different failure modes of the ice (7)

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Figure 13

(a) Dependence of maximum force of impact velocity in ramming trials for Polar Sea, (b) in Oden, (c) probability of exceedance for plot (a), (d) probability of exceedance for plot (b) (171)

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Figure 14

Ice edge failure process showing the effect of the normal frame angle (190)

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Figure 15

Dependence of the load on one frame on the normal frame angle for different values of ice thickness (190)

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Figure 16

Dependence of the structure response on ice velocity for different types of structure cross section (238) (● ωn=16Hz, ∎ ωn=4.02Hz, ▾ ωn=1.27Hz, single pile of 7.6cm diameter; 엯 ωn=14.17Hz, ◻ ωn=4.01Hz, ▿ ωn=1.27Hz, two piles of 7.6cm diameter each)

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Figure 17

Dependence of the structure deflection on the ice sheet velocity for different values of ice thickness shown at each point (solid triangles for the one column structure and an empty triangle for the two column structure) (238)

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Figure 18

Time-history records of ice forces and structure displacement at two different ice velocities for a structure natural frequency of 2.89Hz(248): (a) ice velocity of 7.6mm∕s and (b) ice velocity of 39.5mm∕s

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Figure 19

Dependence of the predominant frequency of structural vibration on ice velocity, showing the structure’s first two mode natural frequencies (248)

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Figure 20

Typical ice force record acting on a framed tower (255)

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Figure 21

Time-history records of interaction force and structure deflection on two different structures (260); structure stiffness of (a) 2.45MNm−1 and (b) 1.12MNm−1

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Figure 22

Dependence of crash frequency on ice velocity (309)

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Figure 23

(a) Normalized ice force, Fi(t); (b) structure acceleration, ü(t); (c) ice thickness; (d) cross-correlation coefficient map and global wavelet cross spectrum (315)

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Figure 24

Time-history records of ice force acting on a rigid cylinder of diameter 200mm at different values of cylinder velocity (42)

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Figure 25

Dependence of ice force characteristic frequency on the ratio of cylinder velocity-to-ice thickness for a cylinder diameter of 200mm(42)

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Figure 26

Dependence of mean speed on mean ice thickness; the lines are linear regression: (a) 1min intervals and (b) 30min running averages (368)

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Figure 27

Dependence of (a) sway and (b) surge on the model tanker fore perpendicular position; (c) sway-surge configuration diagram (386)

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Figure 28

Comparison of total resistance encountered by the (a) wedge bow and (b) icebreaker bow in rubble comprised of ice blocks, ice mush, and a mixture of ice mush and blocks (396)

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Figure 29

Time-history records of wedge-bow resistance forces for two different sets of ice fragment size and ship speed (398)

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Figure 30

Time-history records of resistance forces of icebreaker bow for two different sets of ice-rubble size and hull velocity (398)

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Figure 31

Dependence of the righting arm on the heel angle (432)

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Figure 32

Potentials and phase portraits of unbiased and biased ships

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Figure 33

Integrity curves at different values of damping levels and an equivalent linear system at excitation frequency ω=0.85. Curves A are for β=0.1, B are for β=0.05, and C for β=0.01(444).

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Figure 34

Righting arm curve: exact versus ninth order fit and reduced righting arm at 100% GM versus 75% GM

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Figure 35

Roll angle amplitude-frequency response curves for DDG-51 for (a) 100%GM and (b) 75% GM

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Figure 36

Safe basin of attraction for DDG-51 with (a) 100% GM and (b) 75% GM. (—, stable; - - - -, unstable)

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Figure 37

Dependence of the mean exit time on the initial energy H for different values of the nonlinear damping coefficient η(491)

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Figure 38

Dependence of the mean exit time on the initial energy level for different values of ε, ζ=η=ν=1, m¯=0.5, γ¯=0.15(495)

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Figure 39

Frahm’s antiroll ship tanks: (a) two tanks each half filled with water (old type); (b) modern blister construction of Frahm’s antirolling tanks (525)

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Figure 40

Principles of roll reduction by fin stabilizer (513)

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Figure 41

Amplification factor (511)

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Figure 42

PTO at 15knots in the North Atlantic (503)

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Figure 43

Independent control strategies for the yaw and roll motions of the ship (527)

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Figure 44

Proposed control strategy (527)

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Figure 45

Proposed INFRRS system (515)

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