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REVIEW ARTICLES

Modeling and Analysis of Functionally Graded Materials and Structures

[+] Author and Article Information
Victor Birman

Engineering Education Center, University of Missouri-Rolla, One University Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63121

Larry W. Byrd

 Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/VASM, Building 65, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433

Appl. Mech. Rev 60(5), 195-216 (Sep 01, 2007) (22 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2777164 History:

This paper presents a review of the principal developments in functionally graded materials (FGMs) with an emphasis on the recent work published since 2000. Diverse areas relevant to various aspects of theory and applications of FGM are reflected in this paper. They include homogenization of particulate FGM, heat transfer issues, stress, stability and dynamic analyses, testing, manufacturing and design, applications, and fracture. The critical areas where further research is needed for a successful implementation of FGM in design are outlined in the conclusions.

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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

A particulate FGM with the volume fractions of constituent phases graded in one (vertical) direction (12)

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Figure 2

Skeletal microstructure of FGM material (13)

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Figure 3

Columnar FGM: TBC processed by electron beam physical vapor deposition technique (ZrO2–Y2O3 with graded porosity) (14)

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Figure 4

Comparison of the effective modulus of glass/epoxy FGM obtained by the method developed in Ref. 12 and the Mori–Tanaka method

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Figure 5

Nonlinear behavior of FGM metal-ceramic (aluminum-alumina) plates subject to a transverse load (75). The power-law exponent in the relationship for the volume fraction distribution through the thickness is denoted by n. Case (a): nondimensional central deflection; Case (b): nondimensional axial stress at the center of the plate.

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Figure 6

Buckling radial stress resultant as a function of the volume fraction exponent and a thickness-to-radius ratio h∕a of a circular simply supported plate (93)

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Figure 7

Effect of boundary conditions on bending of FGM square plates subjected to a uniform pressure and temperature (97). Case (a): nondimensional load-deflection behavior; Case (b): nondimensional load-bending couple relationships. Boundary conditions are C=clamped, S=simple support, and F=free edge.

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Figure 8

Thermal postbuckling behavior of a Si3N4∕SUS304 plate. The volume fraction index for the ceramic phase is denoted by k [110]

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Figure 9

Porosity gradient in a sintered ceramic sample produced by pressure filtration (154)

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Figure 10

The maximum tensile stress in the matrix as a function of the thermal regime and the particle volume fraction (182). II=heating process; III=heating after cooling process.

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Figure 11

Schematics of a FGM interface within a prosthesis (200)

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Figure 12

Lathe metal cutting bites: (a) conventional bimaterial type; (b) FGM design (203)

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Figure 13

Configuration of a tapered pretwisted turbine blade (a) and the cross section used in the analysis (b) (209)

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