Bejan, A., 2000, "*Shape and Structure, From Engineering to Nature*", Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Bejan, A., 1997, "*Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics*", 2nd ed., Wiley, New York, Chap. 13.

Bejan, A., 1997, “Constructal-Theory Network of Conducting Paths for Cooling a Heat Generating Volume,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer

[CrossRef], 40 , pp. 799–816.

Bejan, A., 1997, “Theory of Organization in Nature: Pulsating Physiological Processes,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer

[CrossRef], 40 , pp. 2097–2104.

Bejan, A., 1997, “How Nature Takes Shape,” Mech. Eng. (Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.), 119 (10), pp. 90–92.

Bejan, A., 1997, “Constructal Tree Network for Fluid Flow Between a Finite-Size Volume and One Source or Sink,” Rev. Gen. Therm.

[CrossRef], 36 , pp. 592–604.

Bejan, A., and Tondeur, D., 1998, “Equipartition, Optimal Allocation, and the Constructal Approach to Predicting Organization in Nature,” Rev. Gen. Therm.

[CrossRef], 37 , pp. 165–180.

Bejan, A., and Lorente, S., 2004, “The Constructal Law and the Thermodynamics of Flow Systems With Configuration,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer

[CrossRef], 47 , pp. 3203–3214.

Bejan, A., and Lorente, S., 2004, “Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Flow System Architectures,” Heat Technol., 22 (1), pp. 85–92.

Bejan, A., 1999, “A Role for Exergy Analysis and Optimization in Aircraft Energy-System Design,” ASME Advanced Energy Systems, 39 , pp. 209–218.

Bejan, A., 2002, “Fundamentals of Exergy Analysis, Entropy Generation Minimization, and the Generation of Flow Architecture,” Int. J. Energy Res., 26 (7), pp. 545–565.

Bejan, A., 1982, "*Entropy Generation Through Heat and Fluid Flow*", Wiley, New York.

Bejan, A., 1996, "*Entropy Generation Minimization*", CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Bejan, A., Badescu, V., and De Vos, A., 2000, “Constructal Theory of Economics Structure Generation in Space and Time,” Energy Convers. Manage., 41 , pp. 1429–1451.

Bejan, A., and Errera, M. R., 1997, “Deterministic Tree Networks for Fluid Flow: Geometry for Minimal Flow Resistance Between a Volume and One Point,” Fractals

[CrossRef], 5 (4), pp. 685–695.

Lewins, J., 2003, “Bejan’s Constructal Theory of Equal Potential Distribution,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 46 , pp. 1451–1453.

Bejan, A., and Dan, N., 1999, “Two Constructal Routes to Minimal Heat Flow Resistance via Greater Internal Complexity,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 121 , pp. 6–14.

Bejan, A., and Dan, N., 1999, “Constructal Trees of Convective Fins,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 121 , pp. 675–682.

Ledezma, G. A., and Bejan, A., 1998, “Constructal Three-Dimensional Trees for Conduction Between a Volume and One Point,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 120 , pp. 977–984.

Bejan, A., 2004, "*Convection Heat Transfer*", 3rd ed., Wiley, New York.

Bejan, A., 2003, “Simple Methods for Convection in Porous Media: Scale Analysis and the Intersection of Asymptotes,” Int. J. Energy Res.

[CrossRef], 27 , pp. 859–874.

Battacharjee, S., and Grosshandler, W. L., 1988, “The Formation of a Wall Jet Near a High Temperature Wall Under Microgravity Environment,” ASME Heat Transfer Division, 96 , pp. 711–716.

Petrescu, S., 1994, “Comments on the Optimal Spacing of Parallel Plates Cooled by Forced Convection,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer

[CrossRef], 37 , p. 1283.

Bejan, A., 1999, “How Nature Takes Shape: Extensions of Constructal Theory to Ducts, Rivers, Turbulence, Cracks, Dendritic Crystals and Spatial Economics,” Int. J. Therm. Sci.

[CrossRef], 38 , pp. 653–663.

Bejan, A., 2001, “Constructal Theory: An Engineering View on the Generation of Geometric Form in Living (Flow) Systems,” Comments on Theoretical Biology, 6 (4), pp. 279–302.

Borrvall, T., Klarbring, A., Petersson, J., and Torstenfelt, B., 2002, “Topology Optimization in Fluid Mechanics,” "*Proccedings of Fifth Congress on Comp. Mech*".

Nakayama, W., 2003, “A Methodology to Work on Geometrically Complex Heat Systems: The Cases of Heat Conduction Through Composite Slabs,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer

[CrossRef], 46 , pp. 3397–3409.

Brod, H., 2003, “Residence Time Optimised Choice of Tube Diameters and Slit Heights in Distribution Systems for non-Newtonian Liquids,” J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., 111 , pp. 107–125.

Bejan, A., 1998, “Questions in Fluid Mechanics: Natural Tree-Shaped Flows,” J. Fluids Eng., 120 , pp. 429–430.

Bejan, A., 1998, “Constructal Theory: From Thermodynamic and Geometric Optimization to Predicting Shape in Nature,” Energy Convers. Manage.

[CrossRef], 39 (16-18), pp. 1705–1718.

Bejan, A., 2000, “From Heat Transfer Principles to Shape and Structure in Nature: Constructal Theory,” J. Heat Transfer

[CrossRef], 122 , pp. 430–449.

Bejan, A., 2001, “The Tree of Convective Heat Streams: Its Thermal Insulation Function and the Predicted 3/4-Power Relation Between Body Heat Loss and Body Size,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer

[CrossRef], 44 , pp. 699–704.

Bejan, A., 2003, “Constructal Theory: Tree-Shaped Flows and Energy Systems for Aircraft,” J. Aircr., 40 (1), pp. 43–48.

Bejan, A., 2003, “Constructal Tree-Shaped Paths for Conduction and Convection,” Int. J. Energy Res.

[CrossRef], 27 , pp. 283–299.

Bejan, A., 2003, “Flows in Environmental Fluids and Porous Media,” Int. J. Energy Res., 27 , pp. 825–846.

Bejan, A., and Errera, M. R., 2000, “Convective Trees of Fluid Channels for Volumetric Cooling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer

[CrossRef], 43 , pp. 3105–3118.

Bejan, A., and Errera, M. R., 1997, “Deterministic Tree Networks for Fluid Flow: Geometry for Minimal Flow Resistance Between a Volume and One Point,” Fractals

[CrossRef], 5 (4), pp. 685–695.

Bejan, A., and Lorente, S., 2002, “Thermodynamic Optimization of Flow Architecture: Dendritic Structures and Optimal Sizes of Components,” "*ASME IMECE*", International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, New Orleans, November 17–22, Vol. 3 .

Bejan, A., and Lorente, S., 2001, “Thermodynamic Optimization of Flow Geometry in Mechanical and Civil Engineering,” J. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn.

[CrossRef], 26 (4), pp. 305–354.

Bejan, A., and Ledezma, G. A., 1998, “Streets Tree Networks and Urban Growth: Optimal Geometry for Quickest Access Between a Finite-Size Volume and One Point,” Physica A

[CrossRef], 255 , pp. 211–217.

Bejan, A., Rocha, L. A. O., and Lorente, S., 2000, “Thermodynamic Optimization of Geometry: T- and Y- Shaped Constructs of Fluid Streams,” Int. J. Therm. Sci.

[CrossRef], 39 , pp. 949–960.

Rocha, L. A. O., and Bejan, A., 2001, “Geometric Optimization of Periodic Flow and Heat Transfer in a Volume Cooled by Parallel Tubes,” ASME J. Heat Transfer

[CrossRef], 123 , pp. 233–239.

Errera, M. R., and Bejan, A., 1999, “Tree Networks for Flows in Porous Media,” J. Porous Media, 2 , pp. 1–18.

Almogbel, M., and Bejan, A., 2001, “Constructal Optimization of Nonuniformly Distributed Tree-Shaped Flow Structures for Conduction,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer

[CrossRef], 44 , pp. 4185–4195.

Lorente, S., Wechsatol, W., and Bejan, A., 2002, “Tree-Shaped Flow Structures Designed by Minimizing Path Lengths,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer

[CrossRef], 45 (16), pp. 3299–3312.

Lorente, S., Wechsatol, W., and Bejan, A., 2003, “Optimization of Tree-Shaped Flow Distribution Structures Over a Disc-Shaped Area,” Int. J. Energy Res.

[CrossRef], 27 , pp. 715–723.

Lorente, S., Wechsatol, W., and Bejan, A., 2004, “Tree-Shaped Flow Structures for Human-Scale and Small-Scales Applications,” Heat Technol., 22 (1), pp. 15–26.

Rocha, L. A. O., Lorente, S., and Bejan, A., 2002, “Constructal Design for Cooling a Disc-Shaped Area by Conduction,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer

[CrossRef], 45 , pp. 1643–1652.

Neagu, M., and Bejan, A., 1999, “Constructal-theory Tree Networks of ‘Constant’ Thermal Resistance,” J. Appl. Phys.

[CrossRef], 86 (2), pp. 1136–1144.

Neagu, M., and Bejan, A., 1999, “Three-Dimensional Tree Constructs of ‘Constant’ Thermal Resistance,” J. Appl. Phys.

[CrossRef], 86 (12), pp. 7107–7115.

Wechsatol, W., Lorente, S., and Bejan, A., 2001, “Tree-Shaped Insulated Designs for the Uniform Distribution of Hot Water Over an Area,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer

[CrossRef], 44 , pp. 3111–3123.

Wechsatol, W., Lorente, S., and Bejan, A., 2002, “Development of Tree-Shaped Flows by Adding New Users to Existing Networks of Hot Water Pipes,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 45 , pp. 723–733.

Wechsatol, W., Lorente, S., and Bejan, A., 2002, “Optimal Tree-Shaped Networks for Fluid Flow in a Disc-Shaped Body,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer

[CrossRef], 45 (25), pp. 4911–4924.

Wechsatol, W., Lorente, S., and Bejan, A., 2003, “Dendritic Convection on a Disc,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer

[CrossRef], 46 , pp. 4381–4391.

Wechsatol, W., Lorente, S., and Bejan, A., 2004, “Tree-Shaped Flow Structures: Are Both Thermal-Resistance and Flow-Resistance Minimisations Necessary?” Int. J. Exergy, 1 (1), pp. 2–17.

Arion, V., Cojocari, A., and Bejan, A., 2003, “Constructal Tree Shaped Networks for the Distribution of Electric Power,” Energy Convers. Manage., 44 , pp. 867–891.

Ordonez, J. C., Bejan, A., and Cherry, R. S., 2003, “Designed Porous Media: Optimally Nonuniform Flow Structures Connecting One Point With More Points,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 42 , pp. 857–870.

Bonjour, J., Rocha, L. A. O., Bejan, A., and Meunier, F., 2003, “Dendritic Fins Optimization for a Coaxial Two-Stream Heat Exchanger,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 47 , pp. 111–124.

Zamfirescu, C., and Bejan, A., 2003, “Constructal Tree-Shaped Two-Phase Flow for Cooling a Surface,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 46 (15), pp. 2785–2797.

Reis, A. H., Miguel, A. F., and Aydin, M., 2004, “Constructal Design of a Porous Structure for Gas Transport From One Opening to a Surface,” "*Applications of Porous Media*", Proceeding of the International Conference on Applications of Porous Media, Évora, Portugal , A.H.Reis and A.F.Miguel, eds.

Matos, R. S., Vargas, J. V. C., Laursen, T. A., and Bejan, A., 2004, “Optimally Staggered Finned Circular and Elliptic Tubes in Forced Convection,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 47 , pp. 1347–1359.

Matos, R. S., Laursen, T. A., Vargas, J. V. C., and Bejan, A., 2004, “Three-Dimensional Optimization of Staggered Finned Circular and Elliptic Tubes in Forced Convection,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 43 , pp. 477–487.

Kraus, A. D., 2003, “Constructal Theory and the Optimization of Finned Arrays,” "*Proceedings of the 2003 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress*".

Alebrahim, A., and Bejan, A., 1999, “Constructal Trees of Circular Fins for Conductive and Convective Heat Transfer,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer

[CrossRef], 42 , pp. 3585–3597.

Bejan, A., and Almogbel, M., 2000, “Constructal T-Shaped Fins,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer

[CrossRef], 43 , pp. 2101–2115.

Almogbel, M., and Bejan, A., 1999, “Conduction Trees With Spacings at the Tips,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer

[CrossRef], 42 , pp. 3739–3756.

Vargas, J. V. C., and Bejan, A., 2002, “The Optimal Shape of the Interface Between Two Conductive Bodies With Minimal Thermal Resistance,” ASME J. Heat Transfer

[CrossRef], 124 , pp. 1218–1221.

Biserni, C., Rocha, L. A. O., and Bejan, A., 2004, “Inverted Fins: Geometric Optimization of the Intrusion Into a Conducting Wall,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 47 , pp. 2577–2586.

Blyth, M. G., and Pozrikidis, C., 2003, “Heat Conduction Across Irregular and Fractal-Like Surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 46 , pp. 1329–1339.

Zimparov, V., 2004, “Performance Evaluation of Some Passive Augmentation Techniques Using Entropy Minimization Method,” in "*Bejan’s Constructal Theory of Shape and Structure*", R.Rosa, A.H.Reis, and A.F.Miguel, eds., Évora Geophysics Centre, Évora, pp. 121–145.

Zimparov, V., 2001, “Enhancement of Heat Transfer by a Combination of Three-Start Spirally Corrugated Tube With a Twisted Tape,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 44 , pp. 551–574.

Mereu, S., Sciubba, E., and Bejan, A., 2001, “The Optimal Cooling of a Stack of Heat Generating Boards With Fixed Pressure Drop, Flow Rate or Pumping Power,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer

[CrossRef], 36 , pp. 3677–3686.

Ogiso, K., 2001, “Assessment of Overall Cooling Performance in Thermal Design of Electronics Based on Thermodynamics,” ASME J. Heat Transfer

[CrossRef], 123 , pp. 999–1005.

Ghodoossi, L., and Egrican, N., 2003, “Exact Solution for Cooling of Electronics Using Constructal Theory,” J. Appl. Phys.

[CrossRef], 93 , pp. 4922–4929.

Gosselin, L., and Bejan, A., 2004, “Constructal Thermal Optimization of an Electromagnet,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 43 , pp. 331–338.

Xia, Z. Z., Li, Z. X., and Guo, Z. Y., 2003, “Heat Conduction Optimization: High Conductivity Constructs Based on the Principle of Biological Evolution,” "*Proceedings of the 12th International Heat Transfer Conference*", Grenoble, August 18–23.

da Silva, A. K., Lorente, S., and Bejan, A., 2004, “Optimal Distribution of Discrete Heat Sources on a Wall With Natural Convection,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 47 , pp. 203–214.

da Silva, A. K., Lorente, S., and Bejan, A., 2004, “Optimal Distribution of Discrete Heat Sources on a Plate With Laminar Forced Convection,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 47 , pp. 2139–2148.

Abu-Hijleh, B. A., 2003, “Optimized Use of Baffles for Reduced Natural Convection Heat Transfer From a Horizontal Cylinder,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 42 , pp. 1061–1071.

Bejan, A., 2004 “Designed Porous Media: Maximal Heat Transfer Density at Decreasing Length Scales,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 47 , pp. 3073–3083.

Alharbi, A. Y., and Pence, D. V., 2003, “Temperature Distributions in Microscale Fractal-Like Branching Channel Networks,” "*Proceedings of the ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference*".

Luo, L., Tondeur, D., and Gruss, A., 2003, “Intensification des Transferts et Conception des Échangeurs Multi-Échelles,” "*Proceeding of the Congrés Français de Thermique*", Genoble.

Azoumah, Y., Mazet, N., and Neveu, P., 2004, “Constructal Network for Heat and Mass Transfer in a Solid-Gas Reactive Porous Medium,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 47 , pp. 3313–3320.

Rivera-Alvarez, A., and Bejan, A., 2003, “Constructal Geometry and Operation of Adsorption Processes,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 42 , pp. 983–994.

Pence, D. V., 2002, “Reduced Pumping Power and Wall Temperature in Microchannel Heat Sinks With Fractal-Like Branching Channel Networks,” Microscale Thermophys. Eng.

[CrossRef], 6 , pp. 319–330.

Lorente, S., and Bejan, A., 2002, “Combined ‘Flow and Strength’ Geometric Optimization: Internal Structure in a Vertical Insulating Wall With Air Cavities and Prescribed Strength,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 45 (16), pp. 3313–3320.

Gosselin, L., Bejan, A., and Lorente, S., 2004, “Combined ‘Heat Flow and Strength’ Optimization of Geometry: Mechanical Structures Most Resistant to Thermal Attack,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 47 , pp. 3477–3489.

Favre-Marinet, M., Le Person, S., and Bejan, A., 2003, “Maximum Heat Transfer Rate Density in Two-Dimensional Minichannels and Microchannels,” "*The First International Conference on Microchannels and Minichannels Proceedings ASME*", S.G.Kandlikar, ed., pp. 765–772.

Bejan, A., 2002, “Dendritic Constructal Heat Exchanger With Small-Scale Crossflows and Larger-Scales Counterflows,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 45 (23), pp. 4607–4620.

Bejan, A., 2003, “Optimal Internal Structure of Volumes Cooled by Single-Phase Forced and Natural Convection,” J. Electron. Packag.

[CrossRef], 125 , pp. 200–207.

Bejan, A., and Fautrelle, Y., 2003, “Constructal Multi-Scale Structure for Maximal Heat Transfer Density,” Acta Mech., 163 , pp. 39–49.

Bello-Ochende, T., and Bejan, A., 2003, “Fitting the Duct to the ‘Body’ of the Convective Flow,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 46 , pp. 1693–1701.

Cizmas, P. G., and Bejan, A., 2001, “Optimal Placement of Cooling Flow Tubes in a Wall Heated From the Side,” Int. J. Transp. Phenom., 3 (4), pp. 331–343.

Nelson, R. A., and Bejan, A., 1998, “Constructal Optimization of Internal Flow Geometry in Convection,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 120 , pp. 357–364.

Ledezma, G. A., Bejan, A., and Errera, M. R., 1997, “Constructal Tree Networks for Heat Transfer,” J. Appl. Phys.

[CrossRef], 82 (1), pp. 89–100.

Neagu, M., and Bejan, A., 2001, “Constructal Placement of High-Conductivity Inserts in a Slab: Optimal Design of Roughness,” ASME J. Heat Transfer

[CrossRef], 123 , pp. 1184–1189.

Vargas, J. V. C., and Bejan, A., 2004, “Thermodynamic Optimization of Internal Structure in a Fuel Cell,” Int. J. Energy Res., 28 , pp. 319–339.

Ordonez, J. C., and Bejan, A., 2003, “System-Level Optimization of the Sizes of Organs for Heat and Fluid Flow Systems,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 42 , pp. 335–342.

Costa, V. A. F., 2004, “Visualisation of Heat and Mass Transfer Using Heatlines and Masslines,” in "*Bejan’s Constructal Theory of Shape and Structure*", R.Rosa, A.H.Reis, and A.F.Miguel, eds., Évora Geophysics Centre, Évora, pp. 147–169.

Ordonez, J. C., and Bejan, A., 2003, “Minimum Power Requirement for Environmental Control of Aircraft,” Energy, 28 , pp. 1183–1202.

Rosa, R., 2004, “River Basins: Geomorphology and Dynamics,” in "*Bejan’s Constructal Theory of Shape and Structure*", R.Rosa, A.H.Reis, and A.F.Miguel, eds., Évora Geophysics Centre, Évora, pp. 15–47.

Errera, M. R., and Bejan, A., 1998, “Deterministic Tree Networks for River Drainage Basins,” Fractals

[CrossRef], 6 (3), pp. 245–261.

Bejan, A., and Reis, A. H., 2005, “Thermodynamic Optimization of Global Circulation and Climate,” Int. J. Energy Res.

[CrossRef], 29 , pp. 303–316.

Reis, A. H., and Bejan, A., 2006, “Constructal Theory of Global Circulation and Climate, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 49 , pp. 1857–1875.

Bejan, A., Ikegami, Y., and Ledezma, G. A., 1998, “Constructal Theory of Natural Crack Pattern Formation for Fastest Cooling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer

[CrossRef], 41 , pp. 1945–1954.

Bisio, G., and Rubatto, G., 2002, “Analysis of Natural Crack Pattern Formation by Constructal Theory and Extensions to Several Nature Fields,” Int. J. Energy Environment Economics, 10 (1), pp. 69–84.

Miguel, A. F., 2004, “Constructal Analysis of Dendritic Growth,” in "*Bejan’s Constructal Theory of Shape and Structure*", R.Rosa, A.H.Reis, and A.F.Miguel, eds., Évora Geophysics Centre, Èvora, pp. 75–93.

Bejan, A., 2002, “Constructal Theory of Organization in Nature: Dendritic Flows, Allometric Laws and Flight,” "*Design and Nature*", C.A.Brebbia, L.Sucharov, and P.Pascolo, eds., WIT Press, Southampton, UK, pp. 57–66.

Reis, A. H., Miguel, A. F., and Aydin, M., 2004, “Constructal Theory of Flow Architectures of the Lungs,” Med. Phys.

[CrossRef], 31 (5), pp. 1135–1140.

Bejan, A., 1996, “Street Network Theory of Organization in Nature,” J. Adv. Transp., 30 (2), pp. 85–107.

Hernandez, G., Allen, J. K., and Mistree, F., 2002, “Design of Hierarchic Platforms for Customizable Products,” "*Proceedings of ASME 2002 Design Engineering Tech. Conference, Montreal*".

Feynman, R. P., Leighton, R. B., and Sands, M., 1997, “"*The Feynman Lectures on Physics*",” 6th ed., Vol. II , Chap. 19, Wiley.

Callen, H. B., 1985, "*Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics*", 2nd ed., Wiley, New York.

Dincer, I., 2004, “Entropy Generation for the Next Generation,” in "*Bejan’s Constructal Theory of Shape and Structure*", R.Rosa, A.H.Reis, and A.F.Miguel, eds., Évora Geophysics Centre, Évora, pp. 192–219.

Pramanick, A. K., and Das, P. K., 2005, “Note on Constructal Theory of Organization in Nature,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 48 , pp. 1974–1981.

Rosa, R., 2004, "*Bejan’s Constructal Theory of Shape and Structure*", R.Rosa, A.H.Reis, and A.F.Miguel, eds., Évora Geophysics Centre, Évora, pp. 15–47.

Patrício, M. F., 2004, "*Bejan’s Constructal Theory of Shape and Structure*", R.Rosa, A.H.Reis, and A.F.Miguel, eds., Évora Geophysics Centre, Évora, pp. 1–3.