Modeling the Transport of Low-Molecular-Weight Penetrants Within Polymer Matrix Composites

[+] Author and Article Information
David A. Bond

School of Mechanical, Aerospace & Civil Engineering,  University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QP, UK

Paul A. Smith

School of Engineering,  University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK

Appl. Mech. Rev 59(5), 249-268 (Sep 01, 2006) (20 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2202873 History:

In 1855 Fick reported on the diffusion of liquid through a membrane and proposed that there was an analogy between this process and that of heat conduction allowing him to transcribe the mathematical equation for heat conduction derived in 1822 by Fourier into a form to represent this diffusion of liquid. This model, known as Fickian diffusion, has become the baseline against which the characteristics of liquid diffusion are measured to the point where anomalous diffusion is known generically as non-Fickian. Numerous authors have attempted to develop models to cover all aspects of non-Fickian diffusion resulting in a very large number of models that consider the effect of parameters as varied as the chemical makeup, geometric dimensions, environmental history, stress state, and damage status of the material, as well as the likelihood of multiple diffusion mechanisms being responsible for transport of the water molecules. Of particular interest to structural engineers is the transport of moisture in polymer matrix composites owing to the plasticizing effect the moisture may have on the composite and the potential for the moisture to induce localized damage. This paper reviews analytical models that are relevant to the transport of moisture in structural composites. In doing so the benefits and limitations of the various models and techniques are presented in order to provide a reference for scientists and engineers attempting to describe the kinetics of moisture in composites accurately. There are 160 references cited in this review article.

Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 3

Water absorption (●) and desorption (엯) in Fibredux® 924 epoxy compared to Fickian model (—)

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Figure 7

Example of anomalous uptake data explained by differing diffusion mechanisms

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Figure 8

Schematics of typical weight change profiles due to damage affected moisture uptake (after Ref. 73)

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Figure 9

Transverse diffusion coefficient models

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Figure 10

Individual fiber axes

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Figure 11

Summary of moisture sorption locations and mechanisms

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Figure 12

Use of dual sorption model to represent moisture sorption into T800∕924 composite at 50°C

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Figure 13

Concentration profile as defined by the model of Peterlin (122) (after Ref. 124)

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Figure 14

Stress and damage distribution of model proposed by Ref. 155

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Figure 2

The effect of temperature and activity on the likely sorption kinetic processes for a polymer-penetrant system (after Ref. 7)

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Figure 4

Moisture uptake of glass (엯 from Ref. 27) and carbon (● from Ref. 27, ∎ T800) fibers

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Figure 5

Schematics of typical weight change profiles due to diffusion-relaxation coupled moisture uptake

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Figure 6

Variation of moisture uptake into fiber reinforced composites (T300∕1014 data (∎) from Ref. 84)

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Figure 1

Sorption kinetic uptake curves for polymer-penetrant systems (after Ref. 14)




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