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REVIEW ARTICLES

Developments in Modeling Liquefaction of Granular Soils, Caused by Cyclic Loads

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrzej Sawicki

 Institute of Hydro-Engineering, IBW-PAN, Kościerska 7, 80-953 Gdańsk-Oliwa, Poland

Jecek Mierczyński

 Institute of Hydro-Engineering, IBW-PAN, Kościerska 7, 80-953 Gdańsk-Oliwa, Poland

Appl. Mech. Rev 59(2), 91-106 (Mar 01, 2006) (16 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2130362 History:

The aim of this review article is to present historical developments of mechanics of saturated granular soils in relation to the liquefaction phenomenon, as well as to analyze the present state of this subject in connection with practically important problems. The first part is an introduction to mechanics of liquefaction, in order to make this paper self-contained. Then, some basic empirical findings are described. In the third part, the development of theoretical approaches to liquefaction-related problems, such as cyclic loading compaction and pore pressure accumulation, or cyclic loading degradation of shearing resistance, is presented. The fourth part deals with the presentation of the methods applied for solving practically important problems and those that have not been solved satisfactorily. The last part of this paper presents some of the most important conclusions and suggestions regarding further research. There are 152 references cited in this review article, and a supplementary bibliography of 45 publications is also included.

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Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Synthesis of experimental records from cyclic simple shear tests on saturated sand samples in undrained conditions. Cyclic stress history (a), development of cyclic shear strain (b), pore pressure generation (c). Drawn on the basis of data presented in Ref. 9.

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Figure 2

Relationship between number of loading cycles causing liquefaction Nl and normalized cyclic shear stress amplitude τ0∕p

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Figure 3

Conceptual field loading conditions during an earthquake

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Figure 4

Compaction curves at different strain amplitudes, obtained from simple cyclic shearing

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Figure 5

Typical shear stress-strain hysteresis loop during simple cyclic shearing of granular soil

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Figure 6

Shear modulus as a function of the strain amplitude and mean confining stress

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Figure 7

Instability line and effective stress path followed during undrained loading

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Figure 8

Cyclic loading path in the effective stress space (a); corresponding pore pressure generation (b)

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Figure 9

Pore pressure generation in a layer subjected to earthquake excitation (cf. Fig. 3) (a); cyclic shear stress (b) and strain (c) histories at the level m-m

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