The thermal contact resistance (TCR) in a vacuum is studied. The TCR problem is divided into three different parts: geometrical, mechanical, and thermal. Each problem includes a macro- and microscale subproblem; existing theories and models for each part are reviewed. Empirical correlations for microhardness, and the equivalent (sum) rough surface approximation, are discussed. Suggested correlations for estimating the mean absolute surface slope are summarized and compared with experimental data. The most common assumptions of existing thermal analyses are summarized. As basic elements of thermal analyses, spreading resistance of a circular heat source on a half-space and flux tube are reviewed; also existing flux tube correlations are compared. More than 400 TCR data points collected by different researchers during the last are grouped into two limiting cases: conforming rough and elastoconstriction. Existing TCR models are reviewed and compared with the experimental data at these two limits. It is shown that the existing theoretical models do not cover both of the above-mentioned limiting cases. This review article cites 58 references.