Simulation-Based Biological Fluid Dynamics in Animal Locomotion

[+] Author and Article Information
H. Liu

Department of Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8522, Japan and  Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), PRESTO, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522, Japan

Appl. Mech. Rev 58(4), 269-282 (Jul 01, 2005) (14 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1946047 History:

This article presents a wide-ranging review of the simulation-based biological fluid dynamic models that have been developed and used in animal swimming and flying. The prominent feature of biological fluid dynamics is the relatively low Reynolds number, e.g. ranging from 100 to 104 for most insects; and, in general, the highly unsteady motion and the geometric variation of the object result in large-scale vortex flow structure. We start by reviewing literature in the areas of fish swimming and insect flight to address the usefulness and the difficulties of the conventional theoretical models, the experimental physical models, and the computational mechanical models. Then we give a detailed description of the methodology of the simulation-based biological fluid dynamics, with a specific focus on three kinds of modeling methods: (1) morphological modeling methods, (2) kinematic modeling methods, and (3) computational fluid dynamic methods. An extended discussion on the verification and validation problem is also presented. Next, we present an overall review on the most representative simulation-based studies in undulatory swimming and in flapping flight over the past decade. Then two case studies, of the tadpole swimming and the hawkmoth hovering analyses, are presented to demonstrate the context for and the feasibility of using simulation-based biological fluid dynamics to understanding swimming and flying mechanisms. Finally, we conclude with comments on the effectiveness of the simulation-based methods, and also on its constraints.

Copyright © 2005 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Schematic diagram of the relationship between organ size and Reynolds number

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Figure 2

Definition of a space curve and its geometric change

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Figure 3

Definition of a space plane and grid mapping

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Figure 4

A geometric model of fish Saithe

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Figure 5

Chord-wise cross section of a moth wing on an order of μm

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Figure 6

Propulsive efficiency vs Strouhal number of an oscillating airfoil

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Figure 7

Averaged lift coefficient vs amplitude of a hovering foil

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Figure 8

Geometric model of a tadpole

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Figure 9

Flow patterns around a swimming tadpole

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Figure 10

Geometric model of a hawkmoth wing and grid

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Figure 11

Time variation of positional angle, elevation angle, angles of attack of forewing, and angles of attack of hind wing

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Figure 12

Vortex structure in hawkmoth flight: (a) at downstroke; (b) at supination; (c) at upstroke; and (d) at pronation



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