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REVIEW ARTICLES

Problems of Thermophysics and Thermal Engineering for the New Technologies of the Twenty-First Century

[+] Author and Article Information
I. Z. Kopp

Interbranch Institute for Advanced Studies, St. Petersburg State Technical University, St. Petersburg, Russiae-mail: ilkopp@hotmail.com

Appl. Mech. Rev 58(3), 206-223 (May 27, 2005) (18 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1896369 History: Online May 27, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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References

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Kopp, I. Z., 1974, “Investigation of Various Conditions on Heat Transfer Surfaces With Liquid-Metal Boiling,” Proc. of Nat. Conf. of Heat Transfer and Hydrodynamics, Vol. 3, Nauka Press, Leningrad, pp. 4–7.
Kopp, I. Z., 1976, “Experimental Investigations Various Types of Microstructure Surfaces for Boiling Heat Transfer,” Proc. of 5th Nat. Conf. of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. III, Nauka Press, Leningrad, pp. 61–68.
Borishansky, V. M., Danilova, G. N., and Kopp, I. Z., 1977, “Requirements for Structure to Heat Transfer Surfaces,” Heat Transfer and Hydrodynamics, Nauka State Publ, Leningrad, pp. 105–115 [English Trans., 1981, Heat Transfer, Soviet Research, 2 , pp. 26–36.]
Kopp, I. Z., 1978, “The Role of Solids Particles of Nucleation in Boiling Liquid,” Temperature Rates and Hydrodynamics, Nauka State Publ, Leningrad, pp. 48–54.
Shpilrain, E. E., Jakimovich, K. A., and Kopp, I. Z., 1978, “Experimental Installation for Liquid-Metals Injectors,” Critical Heat Flux, Nauka State Publ, Leningrad, pp. 155–164 (English Trans., 1981, Heat Transfer, Soviet Research, 1 , pp. 8–16.)
Kopp, I. Z., 1985, “Dynamics of Temperature Regime of Heat Transfer Surfaces,” Proc. of VII National Conf. of Heat Transfer and Hydrodynamics, Vol. 2, Nauka Press, Leningrad, pp. 92–96.
Gelman  L. I., and Kopp  I. Z., 1988, “Heat Transfer to Boiling Mercury,” Teplophis. Visokich Temp.,3, pp. 258–259.
Kopp, I. Z., 1988, “Analysis of Number Potential Centers of Nucleation in Real Structure of Heat Transfer Surfaces,” Proc. of the Central Boiler and Turbine Inst, Vol. 91, Trudi CKTI, Leningrad, pp. 64–71.
Kopp, I. Z., 1990, “Capillary Processes in Steam Bubble Generation,” Proc of the 2 Nat Conf of Heat Transfer with Phase Transitions, Vol. 2, Nauka Press, Leningrad, pp. 28–31.
Kopp, I. Z., 1990, “Nucleation of Vapor Bubbles in Real Structure of Heat Transfer Surfaces,” Proc. of VIII Nat Conf. of Heat Transfer and Hydrodynamics, Vol. 2, Nauka Press, Leningrad, pp. 67–69.
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Zuber,  N., 1993, “Nucleate Boiling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 6(1), pp. 53–78.
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Collier, J. G., 1994, Convective Boiling and Condensation, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, UK.
Kopp, I. Z., 1994, “Intensification of Heat Exchange at Boiling of a Liquid,” Trudi Pervoj Rossijskoj Konferencii po teploobmenu, 8 , Moscow, pp. 117–123.
Kalinin  E. K., Dreitser  G. A., and Kopp  I. Z., 1992, “Modern Problems of Enhancement of Boiling Heat Transfer,” Izv Ross Akad Nauk, Energet.,3, pp. 121–134.
Kopp, I. Z., and Nosov, V. V., 1997, “Optimization of a Steam Generation Surface Microstructure,” Proc. of Int. Conf. on Compact Heat Exchangers, Snowbird, USA, June, Begell House, New York, pp. 501–505.
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Kanaev, A. A., and Kopp, I. Z., 1973, Non-Water Matter for Power Installations, Mashinostroenije State Publ, Leningrad.
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Yegorov, A. D., and Kopp, I. Z., 1996, “Air Aerosol Pollution Data Analysis and Airborne Lidar Measurements,” Proc. of Second Int Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition, Vol. 3, Germany.
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Letokhov,  V. S., 1976, “Problems of the Laser Spectroskopy,” Uspehi fix. Nauk (in Russian), Vol.118, pp. 136–165.
Ishay,  J. S., Pertsis,  V., Rave,  E. , 2003, Phys. Rev. Lett., 90, 218102.
Kopp, I. Z., 1993, Foundation of the Systems Analysis Applied to Energy and Environment Problems, North-West Politeh Inst Publ, Leningrad.
Kopp, I. Z., 1990, “Systems Analysis of Heat Processes to the Green House Effect,” Trudi Pervoj Rossijskoj Konferencii po teploobmenu, Vol. 9, Moscow Energy Institute, Moscow, pp. 101–107.
Kopp, I. Z., 1996, “Priority Tasks in the Green House Effect International Researches,” Proc. Int. Ecological Congress, Tech. Acad. Publ., Voronezh, pp. 11–17.
Yegorov  A. D., and Kopp  I. Z., 1997, “Multiposition Lidar Monitoring of Inhomogeneous Air Aerosol Pollution,” Lidar Atmospheric Monitoring, Proc. SPIE, 3104, pp. 239–241.
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Kopp, I. Z., and Yasenski, A. N., 1998, “A Role of Carbon Compounds Emission for Greenhouse Effect,” Proc. of 11th World Clean Air Congress, University Press, Durban, pp. 119–126.
Kopp, I. Z., 1993, “Systems Approach to Analysis of Thermal Impacts on the Environment From Energy Power Plants,” Proc. of 6th Int. Symp. ISTP-6, Seoul, Science Publications, pp. 131–137.
Kerr  R. A., 1999, “Will the Arctic Ocean Lose All Its Ice?” Science, 286, p. 1828.
Carroll  S. M., Hoffman  M., and Trodden  M., 2003, “Can the Dark Energy Equation-of-State Parameter w be Less Than −1?” Phys. Rev. D, 68.

Figures

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Block of a radiator with a fan of forced air cooling a microcircuit
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Experimental block of forced water cooling
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Atmospheric CO2 concentrations (in ppm), historical development from 1950 to 1990 and in scenarios to 2100. Inset shows global mean-temperature change compared to 1990. (Global carbon emissions in an atmosphere from fossil fuel use depending on a version of scenario sources used in the world to 2100. (WEC Table 1 data: A—high; B—average; C—low).
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Comparison human perturbation CO2 in the atmosphere based on the background of century and other cycles
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Types of the origination of nuclei of the vapor phase on a real surface of heat exchange: (a)—adhesive; (b)—cohesive; (c)—mixed
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Models of nucleation of vapor bubbles near the heat transfer surface: (a), Volmer 45; (b), Frenkel 46; (c), Frenkel and Nesis 47; (d), Westwater 48; (e), Hsu 49; (f), Kopp 28
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Types of a “boiling curve” depending on the conditions at the boundary between the heat transfer surface and liquid: I, heat transfer to single phase liquid; II, nucleate boiling; III, mixed boiling; IV, transient boiling; V, film boiling
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Comparison of the dependence of the vapor-bubble diameter at the moment of departure from the heat transfer surface on pressure for boiling of water on horizontal plates and tubes obtained by calculation of balances of different forces affecting a vapor bubble during its growth on the surface with experimental data of different authors: 1, Labuntsov and coworkers 53; 2, Tolubinskii and Ostrovskii 54, 3, Borishanskii and co-workers 55; 4, Mamontova 56; 5, Coul 57; 6, calculation by the Fritz equation 52; 7, calculation by the equation of balance of all forces affecting a vapor bubble
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Dependence of the limiting number of potential nucleation sites on the mean size of cavities: 1, calculated dependence of the limiting number of nucleation sites; 2, region of the number of nucleation sites limited by a microstructure; 3, region of the number of nucleation sites not limited by a microstructure
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Limits of the region of possible realization of nucleate boiling on real heat transfer surfaces in p-R coordinates (p, liquid pressure; R, reduced radius of surface roughness cavities providing stable vapor nucleation)

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