Problems of Thermophysics and Thermal Engineering for the New Technologies of the Twenty-First Century

[+] Author and Article Information
I. Z. Kopp

Interbranch Institute for Advanced Studies, St. Petersburg State Technical University, St. Petersburg, Russiae-mail: ilkopp@hotmail.com

Appl. Mech. Rev 58(3), 206-223 (May 27, 2005) (18 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1896369 History: Online May 27, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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Types of the origination of nuclei of the vapor phase on a real surface of heat exchange: (a)—adhesive; (b)—cohesive; (c)—mixed
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Models of nucleation of vapor bubbles near the heat transfer surface: (a), Volmer 45; (b), Frenkel 46; (c), Frenkel and Nesis 47; (d), Westwater 48; (e), Hsu 49; (f), Kopp 28
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Types of a “boiling curve” depending on the conditions at the boundary between the heat transfer surface and liquid: I, heat transfer to single phase liquid; II, nucleate boiling; III, mixed boiling; IV, transient boiling; V, film boiling
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Comparison of the dependence of the vapor-bubble diameter at the moment of departure from the heat transfer surface on pressure for boiling of water on horizontal plates and tubes obtained by calculation of balances of different forces affecting a vapor bubble during its growth on the surface with experimental data of different authors: 1, Labuntsov and coworkers 53; 2, Tolubinskii and Ostrovskii 54, 3, Borishanskii and co-workers 55; 4, Mamontova 56; 5, Coul 57; 6, calculation by the Fritz equation 52; 7, calculation by the equation of balance of all forces affecting a vapor bubble
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Dependence of the limiting number of potential nucleation sites on the mean size of cavities: 1, calculated dependence of the limiting number of nucleation sites; 2, region of the number of nucleation sites limited by a microstructure; 3, region of the number of nucleation sites not limited by a microstructure
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Limits of the region of possible realization of nucleate boiling on real heat transfer surfaces in p-R coordinates (p, liquid pressure; R, reduced radius of surface roughness cavities providing stable vapor nucleation)
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Block of a radiator with a fan of forced air cooling a microcircuit
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Experimental block of forced water cooling
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Atmospheric CO2 concentrations (in ppm), historical development from 1950 to 1990 and in scenarios to 2100. Inset shows global mean-temperature change compared to 1990. (Global carbon emissions in an atmosphere from fossil fuel use depending on a version of scenario sources used in the world to 2100. (WEC Table 1 data: A—high; B—average; C—low).
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Comparison human perturbation CO2 in the atmosphere based on the background of century and other cycles




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