Thomson (Lord Kelvin)
W (1848), Note on the integration of the equations of equilibrium of an elastic solid, Camb. Dublin Math. J. 3, 87–89.

Boussinesq
J (1878), Equilibrium of an elastic isotropic half-space supporting different loads in the absence of gravity, Acad. Sci., Paris, C. R. 86, 1260–1263 (in French).

Cerruti V (1882), Studies of the equilibrium of isotropic elastic bodies, *Reale Academia dei Lincei, Serie*3^{a},*Memorie della Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali*13 , 81–122 (in Italian).

Mindlin
RD (1936), Force at a point in the interior of a semi-infinite solid, Physics (N.Y.) 7, 195–202.

Poulos HG, and Davis EH (1974), *Elastic Solutions for Soil and Rock Mechanics*, John Wiley and Sons, Inc, New York, NY.

Michell
JH (1900), Elementary distributions of plane stress, Proc. London Math. Soc. 32, 35–61.

Flamant
M (1892), On the distribution of stresses in a two-dimensional solid under transverse loading, Acad. Sci., Paris, C. R. 114, 1465–1468 (in French).

Boussinesq
J (1892), On the local disturbances which are produced under concentrated loads, uniformly distributed in the out-of-plane direction, and acting on the upper surface of a half-space, either horizontally or as a pair vertically, Acad. Sci., Paris, C. R. 114, 1510–1516 (in French).

Melan
E (1932), The state of stress due to a concentrated load applied within a half-plane, Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 12, 343–346 (in German).

Kurshin
LM (1959), Mixed plane boundary value problem of the theory of elasticity for a quadrant, J. Appl. Math. Mech. 23, 1403–1408.

Sternberg
E, and Eubanks
RA (1955), On the concept of concentrated loads and an extension of the uniqueness theorem in the linear theory of elasticity, J. Ration. Mech. Anal. 4, 135–168.

Love AEH (1944), *A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, 4th Edition*, Dover Publ, New York NY.

Turteltaub
MJ, and Sternberg
E (1968), On concentrated loads and Green’s functions in elastostatics, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 29, 193–240.

Chowdhury
KL (1983), Solution of the problem of a concentrated torque on a semi-space by similarity transformations, J. Elast. 13, 87–90.

Chen
T (1992), Some remarks on the solutions of a concentrated torque and double forces on an elastic half-space, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 59, 690–692.

Timoshenko SP, and Goodier JN (1970), *Theory of Elasticity, 3rd Edition*, McGraw-Hill Book Co, New York NY.

Kolossoff G (1910), On an application of the theory of complex variables to the two-dimensional problem of elasticity theory, Dissertation, St Petersburg, Russia.

Kolossoff
G (1914), On some properties of the plane problem of elasticity theory, Math. Phys. 62, 384–409 (in German).

Inglis
CE (1913), Stresses in a plate due to the presence of cracks and sharp corners, Inst. Nav. Archit. Mar. Eng., Trans. 55, 219–241.

Williams
ML (1952), Stress singularities resulting from various boundary conditions in angular corners of plates in extension, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 19, 526–528.

Williams
ML (1959), The stresses around a fault or crack in dissimilar media, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 49, 199–204.

Sadowsky
MA (1928), Two-dimensional problems of elasticity theory, Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 8, 107–121 (in German).

Abramov
BM (1937), The problem of contact of an elastic infinite half-plane with an absolutely rigid rough foundation, C. R. (Dokl.) Acad. Sci. URSS 17, 173–178.

Zak
AR (1964), Stresses in the vicinity of boundary discontinuities in bodies of revolution, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 31, 150–152.

Dempsey
JP, and Sinclair
GB (1981), On the singular behavior at the vertex of a bi-material wedge, J. Elast. 11, 317–327.

Thomson W, and Tait PG (1867), *A Treatise on Natural Philosophy*, Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK (this book is also available in two parts as *Principles of Mechanics and Dynamics*, Dover Pub Inc, New York NY).

Brahtz
JHA (1933), Stress distribution in a reentrant corner, Trans. ASME Ser. E. 55, 31–37.

Knein
M (1926), On the theory of pressure testing, Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 6, 414–416 (in German).

Dempsey
JP, and Sinclair
GB (1979), On the stress singularities in the plane elasticity of the composite wedge, J. Elast. 9, 373–391.

Sneddon IN (1951), *Fourier Transforms*, McGraw-Hill Book Co, New York NY.

ABAQUS personnel (1997), *ABAQUS Standard User’s Manual*, Revision 5.7, Vol I, Hibbitt, Karlsson and Sorensen Inc, Pawtucket RI.

ANSYS personnel (1995), *ANSYS User’s Manual*, Revision 5.2, Vol I, ANSYS Inc, Canonsburg PA.

Sinclair
GB, and Epps
BE (2002), On the logarithmic stress singularities induced by the use of displacement shape functions in boundary conditions in submodelling, Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 18, 121–130.

Frisch-Fay R (1962), *Flexible Bars*, Butterworth Inc, Washington DC.

Kondo
M, and Sinclair
GB (1985), A simple substructuring procedure for finite element analysis of stress concentrations, Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 1, 215–218.

Cherepanov
GP (1967), Crack propagation in continuous media, J. Appl. Math. Mech. 31, 503–512.

Hutchinson
JW (1968), Singular behaviour at the end of a tensile crack in a hardening material, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 16, 13–31.

Rice
JR, and Rosengren
GF (1968), Plane strain deformation near a crack tip in a power-law hardening material, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 16, 1–12.

Ramberg W, and Osgood WR (1943), Description of stress-strain curves by three parameters, Tech Note 902, Natl Advisory Committee on Aeronautics, Washington DC.

Chao
YT, and Yang
S (1992), Singularities at the apex of a sharp V-notch in a linear strain hardening material, Int. J. Fract. 57, 47–60.

Rudge
MRH, and Tiernan
DM (1995), Interfacial stress singularities in a bimaterial wedge, Int. J. Fract. 74, 63–75.

Zhang
N, and Joseph
PF (1998), A nonlinear finite element eigenanalysis of singular plane stress fields in bimaterial wedges including complex eigenvalues, Int. J. Fract. 90, 175–207.

Wong
FS, and Shield
RT (1969), Large plane deformations of thin elastic sheets of neo-Hookean material, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 20, 176–199.

Knowles
JK, and Sternberg
E (1973), An asymptotic finite-deformation analysis of the elastostatic field near the tip of a crack, J. Elast. 3, 67–107.

Knowles
JK, and Sternberg
E (1974), Finite-deformation analysis of the elastostatic field near the tip of a crack: Reconsideration and higher-order results, J. Elast. 4, 201–233.

Geubelle
PH, and Knauss
WG (1994), Finite strains at the tip of a crack in a sheet of hyperelastic material: I. Homogeneous case, J. Elast. 35, 61–98.

Geubelle
PH, and Knauss
WG (1994), Finite strains at the tip of a crack in a sheet of hyperelastic material: II. Special bimaterial cases, and III. General bimaterial case, J. Elast. 35, 99–174.

Knowles
JK, and Sternberg
E (1975), On the singularity induced by certain mixed boundary conditions in linearized and nonlinear elasticity, Int. J. Solids Struct. 11, 1173–1201.

Ru
CQ (1997), Finite deformations at the vertex of a bi-material wedge, Int. J. Fract. 84, 325–350.

Duva
JM (1990), The singularity strength at the apex of a wedge undergoing finite deformation, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 57, 577–580.

Griffith
AA (1920), The phenomena of rupture and flow in solids, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A A221, 163–198.

Mansfield EH (1967), On the stresses near a crack in an elastic sheet, Tech Report 67030, Royal Aircraft Est, Cranfield UK.

Truesdell
C (1952), The mechanical foundations of elasticity and fluid dynamics, J. Ration. Mech. Anal. 1, 125–300; (1953), 2, 593–616.

Zheltov
YuP, and Khristianovitch
SA (1955), On the mechanism of hydraulic fracture of an oil bearing stratum, Izvestiya Akademiia Nauk SSSR, Otd. Tekhn. Nauk 5, 3–41 (in Russian).

Tada H, Paris PC, and Irwin GR (1985), *The Stress Analysis of Cracks Handbook, 2nd Edition*, Paris Productions Inc, St Louis MO.

Barenblatt
GL (1959), On the equilibrium of cracks due to brittle fracture, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 127, 47–50 (in Russian).

Barenblatt
GI (1962), The mathematical theory of equilibrium cracks in brittle fracture, Adv. Appl. Mech. 7, 55–129.

Willis
JR (1967), A comparison of the fracture criteria of Griffith and Barenblatt, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 15, 151–162.

Goodier JN (1968), Mathematical theory of equilibrium cracks, *Fracture, An Advanced Treatise* H Liebowitz (ed), Vol II, Academic Press, New York NY, 1–66.

Peierls
R (1940), The size of a dislocation, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 52, 34–37.

Hirth JP, and Lothe L (1968), *Theory of Dislocations*, McGraw-Hill Book Co, New York NY.

Cherepanov GP (1979), *Mechanics of Brittle Fracture*, McGraw-Hill Book Co, New York NY.

Lennard-Jones
JE (1931), Cohesion, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 43, 461–482.

Israelachvili JN (1992), *Intermolecular and Surface Forces, 2nd Edition*, Academic Press, San Diego CA.

Lamé MG (1852), *Lectures on the Mathematical Theory of the Elasticity of Solid Bodies*, Bachelier Pub, Paris, France (in French).

Sinclair
GB, and Meda
G (2001), On some anomalies in Lamé’s solutions for elastic solids with holes, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 68, 132–134.

Sinclair
GB (1996), On the influence of cohesive stress-separation laws on elastic stress singularities, J. Elast. 44, 203–221.

Sinclair GB (1999), A bibliography on the use of cohesive laws in solid mechanics, Report SM 99-8, Dept of Mech Eng, Carnegie Mellon Univ, Pittsburgh PA.

Cribb
JL, and Tomkins
B (1967), On the nature of the stress at the tip of a perfectly brittle crack, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 15, 135–140.

Needleman A (1994), Computational modeling of material failure, *Proc of 12th US Nat Congress of Appl Mech*, Seattle WA, S34–S42.

Sinclair GB, Meda G, and Smallwood BS (1995), On the physical stress field for the Griffith crack, *Proc of 15th Canadian Congress of Appl Mech*, Victoria, British Columbia, 1 , 210–211.

Sinclair GB (2000), Ridding elastic configurations of stress singularities, *Proc of 20th Southeastern Conf of Theoretical and Appl Mech*, Callaway Gardens, GA, pp SM93.1–8.

Johnson KL (1985), *Contact Mechanics*, Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK.

Hertz
H (1882), On the contact of elastic solids, J. Reine Angew. Math. 92, 156–171 (in German: for an account in English, see Johnson [73], Ch 4).

Steuermann
E (1939), To Hertz’s theory of local deformations in compressed elastic bodies, C. R. (Dokl.) Acad. Sci. URSS 25, 359–361.

Persson A (1964), On the stress distribution of cylindrical elastic bodies in contact, Dissertation, Chalmers Univ of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.

Gladwell GML (1980), *Contact Problems in the Classical Theory of Elasticity*, Sijthoff and Noordhoff Int Pub, Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands.

Mossakovskii
VI (1954), The fundamental mixed problem of the theory of elasticity for a half-space with a circular line separating the boundary conditions, Prikl. Mat. Mekh. 18, 187–196 (in Russian).

Goodman
LE (1962), Contact stress analysis of normally loaded rough spheres, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 29, 515–522.

Mossakovskii
VI (1963), Compression of elastic bodies under conditions of adhesion (axisymmetric case), J. Appl. Math. Mech. 27, 630–643.

Spence
DA (1968), Self similar solutions to adhesive contact problems with incremental loading, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A A305, 55–80.

Spence
DA (1975), The Hertz contact problem with finite friction, J. Elast. 5, 297–319.

Dundurs
J, and Comninou
M (1979), Some consequences of the inequality conditions in contact and crack problems, J. Elast. 9, 71–82.

Irwin
GR (1957), Analysis of stresses and strains near the end of a crack traversing a plate, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 24, 361–364.

Keating
RF, and Sinclair
GB (1995), On the fundamental energy argument of elastic fracture mechanics, Int. J. Fract. 74, 43–61.

Eshelby
JD (1951), The force on an elastic singularity, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A A244, 87–112.

Sanders
JL (1960), On the Griffith-Irwin fracture theory, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 27, 352–353.

Rice
JR (1968), A path independent integral and the approximate analysis of strain concentration by notches and cracks, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 35, 379–386.

Irwin GR (1948), Fracture dynamics, *Fracturing of Metals*, Am Soc for Metals, Cleveland OH, 147–166.

Orowan
E (1949), Fracture and strength of solids, Reports on Progress in Physics 12, 185–232.

England
AH (1965), A crack between dissimilar media, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 32, 400–402.

Comninou
M (1977), The interface crack, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 44, 631–636.

Sinclair
GB (1980), On the stress singularity at an interface crack, Int. J. Fract. 16, 111–119.

Atkinson
C (1977), On stress singularities and interfaces in linear elastic fracture mechanics, Int. J. Fract. 13, 807–820.

He
M-Y, and Hutchinson
JW (1989), Kinking of a crack out of an interface, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 56, 270–278.

Suo
Z, and Hutchinson
JW (1989), Sandwich test specimens for measuring interface crack toughness, Mater. Sci. Eng., A A107, 135–143.

Malyshev
BM, and Salganik
RL (1965), The strength of adhesive joints using the theory of cracks, Int. J. Fract. Mech. 1, 114–128.

Comninou
M (1990), An overview of interface cracks, Eng. Fract. Mech. 37, 197–208.

Knowles
JK, and Pucik
TA (1973), Uniqueness for plane crack problems in linear elastostatics, J. Elast. 39, 223–236.

Irwin GR (1960), Fracture mechanics, *Structural Mechanics, Proc of 1st Symp on Naval Structural Mechanics* JN Goodier and NJ Hoff (eds), Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, 557–591.

Rice JR (1968), Mathematical analysis in the mechanics of fracture, *Fracture, An Advanced Treatise* H Liebowitz (ed), Vol II, Academic Press, New York, NY 191–311.

Erdogan
F, and Sih
GC (1963), On the crack extension in plates under plane loading and transverse shear, ASME J. Basic Eng. 85, 519–527.

Rice
JR (1988), Elastic fracture mechanics concepts for interfacial cracks, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 55, 98–103.

Hutchinson
JW, and Suo
Z (1991), Mixed mode cracking in layered materials, Adv. Appl. Mech. 29, 63–191.

Rooke DP, and Cartwright DJ (1976), *Compendium of Stress Intensity Factors*, Hillingdon Press, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UK.

Sih GC (1973), *Handbook of Stress Intensity Factors*, Vol 1, Inst of Fracture and Solid Mechanics, Lehigh Univ, Bethlehem PA.

Murakami Y, Aoki S, Hasebe N, Itoh Y, Miyata H, Miyazaki N, Terada H, Tohgo K, Toya M, and Yuuki R (1987), *Stress Intensity Factors Handbook*, Vol 1, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK.

Murakami Y, Aoki S, Hasebe N, Itoh Y, Miyata H, Miyazaki N, Terada H, Tohgo K, Toya M, and Yuuki R (1990), *Stress Intensity Factors Handbook*, Vol 2, Revised Edition, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK.

Murakami Y, Hanson MT, Hasebe N, Itoh Y, Kishimoto K, Miyata H, Miyazaki N, Terada H, Tohgo K, and Yuuki R (1992), *Stress Intensity Factors Handbook*, Vol 3, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK.

Srawley JE, and Brown Jr, WF (1965), Fracture toughness testing methods, *Fracture Toughness Testing and Its Applications*, STP No 381, Am Soc for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA 133–196.

ASTM (1998), Standard test method for plane-strain fracture toughness of metallic materials, E399-90 (reapproved 1997), *1998 Annual Book of ASTM Standards*, Vol 3.01, Am Soc for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia PA, 413–443.

Heyer RH, and McCabe DE (1970) Evaluation of a method of test for plane strain fracture toughness using a bend specimen, *Review of Developments in Plane Strain Fracture Toughness Testing*, STP No 463, Am Soc for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia PA, 22–41.

McCabe
DE (1972), Evaluation of the compact tension specimen for determining plane strain fracture toughness of high strength materials, J. Mater. 7, 449–454.

Underwood
JH, and Kendall
DP (1978), Cooperative plane strain fracture toughness tests with C-shaped specimens, J. Test. Eval. 6, 296–300.

Hudson
CM, and Seward
SK (1978), A compendium of sources of fracture toughness and fatigue-crack growth data for metallic alloys, Int. J. Fract. 14, R151–R184.

Hudson
CM, and Seward
SK (1982), A compendium of sources of fracture toughness and fatigue-crack growth data for metallic alloys—Part II, Int. J. Fract. 20, R59–R117.

Hudson
CM, and Seward
SK (1989), A compendium of sources of fracture toughness and fatigue-crack growth data for metallic alloys—Part III, Int. J. Fract. 39, R43–R63.

Hoysan
SF, and Sinclair
GB (1993), On the variability of fracture toughness, Int. J. Fract. 60, R43–R49.

Sinclair
GB, and Chambers
AE (1987), Strength size effects and fracture mechanics: What does the physical evidence say? Eng. Fract. Mech. 26, 279–310.

Sinclair
GB, and Pieri
RV (1990), On obtaining fatigue crack growth parameters from the literature, Int. J. Fatigue 12, 57–62.

Chamis CC (1969), Failure criteria for filamentary composites, NASA Tech Note D-5367, NASA, Washington DC.

Valliappan S, Kjellberg S, and Svensson NL (1980), Finite element analysis of total hip prosthesis, *Proc of Int Conf on Finite Elements in Biomechanics*, Tucson AZ, Vol 2, 527–548.

Belie
RG, and Reddy
JN (1980), Direct prediction of fracture for two-dimensional plane stress structures, Comput. Struct. 11, 49–53.

Kim
YJ, and Hsu
TR (1982), A numerical analysis on stable crack growth under increasing load, Int. J. Fract. 20, 17–32.

Chen
C-N (1993), Nonlinear fracture assessment by using the finite element method, Eng. Fract. Mech. 46, 57–77.

Wells AA (1961), Unstable crack propagation in metals—Cleavage and fast fracture, *Proc of the Crack Propagation Symp*, Cranfield, UK, Vol 1, 210–230.

Andersson
H (1973), A finite-element representation of stable crack-growth, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 21, 337–356.

British Standards Inst (1979), Methods for crack opening displacement (COD) testing, BS 5762, British Standards Inst, London, UK.

ASTM (1998), Standard test method for crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) fracture toughness measurement, E1290-93, *1998 Annual Book of ASTM Standards*, Vol. 3.01, Am Soc for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 814–823.

Cottrell AH (1961), Theoretical aspects of radiation damage and brittle fracture in steels, *Steels for Reactor Pressure Circuits*, Special Report No 69, Iron and Steel Inst, London, UK, 281–296.

Burdekin
FM (1981), Assessment of defects: The C.O.D. approach, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A A299, 155–167.

Sinclair
GB (1985), Some inherently unreliable practices in present day fracture mechanics, Int. J. Fract. 28, 3–16.

Williams ML (1951), Surface stress singularities resulting from various boundary conditions in angular corners of plates under bending, *Proc of 1st US Natl Congress of Appl Mech*, Illinois Inst of Tech, Chicago IL, 325–329.

Kitover
KA (1952), On the use of special systems of biharmonic functions for the solution of some problems in the theory of elasticity, Prikl. Mat. Mekh. 16, 739–748 (in Russian).

Huth
JH (1953), The complex-variable approach to stress singularities, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 20, 561–562.

Williams
ML (1956), The complex-variable approach to stress singularities—II, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 23, 477–478.

Bogy
DB (1968), Edge-bonded dissimilar orthogonal elastic wedges under normal and shear loading, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 35, 460–466.

Tranter
CJ (1948), The use of the Mellin transform in finding the stress distribution in an infinite wedge, Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 1, 125–130.

Coker EG, and Filon LNG (1931), *A Treatise on Photo-Elasticity*, Cambridge Univ Press, UK.

Williams
ML (1957), On the stress distribution at the base of a stationary crack, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 24, 109–114.

Bogy
DB (1970), On the problem of edge-bonded elastic quarter-planes loaded at the boundary, Int. J. Solids Struct. 6, 1287–1313.

Bogy
DB, and Wang
KC (1971), Stress singularities at interface corners in bonded dissimilar isotropic elastic materials, Int. J. Solids Struct. 7, 993–1005.

Dempsey
JP (1981), The wedge subjected to tractions: A paradox resolved, J. Elast. 11, 1–10.

Ting
TCT (1984), The wedge subjected to tractions: A paradox re-examined, J. Elast. 14, 235–247.

Ting
TCT (1996), Paradoxes puzzles, and dilemmas in mechanics, Chinese J. Mech. 12, 25–32.

Sinclair
GB (1980), On the singular eigenfunctions for plane harmonic problems in composite regions, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 47, 87–92.

Ting
TCT (1985), Asymptotic solution near the apex of an elastic wedge with curved boundaries, Q. Appl. Math. 42, 467–476.

Atkinson
C (1979), Stress singularities and fracture mechanics, Appl. Mech. Rev. 32, 123–135.

Hwang
KC, Yu
SW, and Yang
W (1990), Theoretical study of crack-tip singularity fields in China, Appl. Mech. Rev. 43, 19–33.

Murakami Y (1992), Stress singularity for notch at bimaterial interface, *Stress Intensity Factors Handbook*, Vol 3, Murakami et al. Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, Ch 18, 963–1062.

Sinclair GB (1998), FEA of singular elasticity problems, *Proc of 8th Int ANSYS Conf*, Pittsburgh, PA, Vol 1, 225–236.

Westergaard
HM (1939), Bearing pressures and cracks, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 6, A-49–A-53.

Gallagher RH (1978), A review of finite element techniques in fracture mechanics, *Proc of 1st Int Conf on Numerical Methods in Fracture Mechanics*, AR Luxmoore and DRJ Owen (eds), Univ of Wales, Swansea UK, 1–25.

Luxmoore AR, and Owen DRJ (eds) (1978), *Proceedings of the First International Conference on Numerical Methods in Fracture Mechanics*, Univ of Wales, Swansea, UK.

Luxmoore AR, and Owen DRJ (eds) (1980), *Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Numerical Methods in Fracture Mechanics*, Univ of Wales, Swansea, UK.

Luxmoore AR, and Owen DRJ (eds) (1984), *Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Numerical Methods in Fracture Mechanics*, Univ of Wales, Swansea, UK.

Luxmoore AR, Owen DRJ, Rajapakse YPS, and Kanninen MF (eds) (1987), *Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Numerical Methods in Fracture Mechanics*, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX.

Luxmoore AR, and Owen DRJ (eds) (1990), *Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Numerical Methods in Fracture Mechanics*, FhG Inst für Werkstoffmechnik, Freiburg, Germany.

Henshell
RD, and Shaw
KG (1975), Crack tip finite elements are unnecessary, Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 9, 495–507.

Barsoum
RS (1976), On the use of isoparametric finite elements in linear fracture mechanics, Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 10, 25–37.

Wait
R (1978), Finite element methods for elliptic problems with singularities, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 13, 141–150.

Lim
IL, Johnston
IW, and Choi
SK (1993), Application of singular quadratic distorted isoparametric elements in linear fracture mechanics, Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 36, 2473–2499.

Meda G, and Sinclair GB (1994), On the use of the H-integral to extract stress intensity factors, *Proc of 6th Int ANSYS Conf*, Pittsburgh PA, Vol 2, 6.39–6.60.

Irwin GR (1958), Fracture, *Handbuch der Physik*, Springer-Verlag Ltd, Berlin, Germany, Vol VI, 551–590.

Cooper
DB, Meda
G, and Sinclair
GB (1995), A comparison of crack-flank displacement fitting for estimating K with a path independent integral, Int. J. Fract. 70, 237–251.

Chan
SK, Tuba
IS, and Wilson
WK (1970), On the finite element method in linear fracture mechanics, Eng. Fract. Mech. 2, 1–17.

Parks
DM (1974), A stiffness derivative finite element technique for determination of crack tip stress intensity factors, Int. J. Fract. 10, 487–502.

Rybicki
EF, and Kanninen
MF (1977), A finite element calculation of stress intensity factors by a modified crack closure integral, Eng. Fract. Mech. 9, 931–938.

Stern M (1973), A boundary integral representation for stress intensity factors, *Proc of 10th Anniversary Meeting of the Soc of Engineering Science*, Raleigh, NC, 125–132.

Stern
M, Becker
EB, and Dunham
RS (1976), A contour integral computation of mixed-mode stress intensity factors, Int. J. Fract. 12, 359–368.

Stern
M, and Soni
ML (1976), On the computation of stress intensities at fixed-free corners, Int. J. Solids Struct. 12, 331–337.

Hong
C-C, and Stern
M (1978), The computation of stress intensity factors in dissimilar materials, J. Elast. 8, 21–34.

Carpenter
WC (1984), Calculation of fracture mechanics parameters for a general corner, Int. J. Fract. 24, 45–58.

Sinclair
GB, Okajima
M, and Griffin
JH (1984), Path independent integrals for computing stress intensity factors at sharp notches in elastic plates, Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 20, 999–1008(see also (1985), Int. J. Fract. 27, R81–R85).

Okajima M, and Sinclair GB (1986), The C-integral: A path independent integral for computing singularity participation at a butt joint, *Proc of Int Conf on Computational Mech*, Tokyo, Japan, Vol 1, V11–V16.

Carpenter
WC, and Byers
C (1987), A path independent integral for computing stress intensities for V-notched cracks in a bi-material, Int. J. Fract. 35, 245–268.

Banks-Sills
L (1997), A conservative integral for determining stress intensity factors of a bimaterial strip, Int. J. Fract. 86, 385–398.

Banks-Sills
L, and Sherman
D (1986), Comparison of methods for calculating stress intensity factors with quarter-point elements, Int. J. Fract. 32, 127–140.

Pang
HLJ (1993), Linear elastic fracture mechanics benchmarks: 2D finite element test cases, Eng. Fract. Mech. 44, 741–751.

Pang HLJ, and Leggat RH (1990), 2D test cases in linear elastic fracture mechanics, Report R0020, National Agency for Finite Element Methods and Standards, Glasgow, UK.

Banks-Sills
L (1991), Application of the finite element method to linear elastic fracture mechanics, Appl. Mech. Rev. 44, 447–461.

Meda
G, Messner
TW, Sinclair
GB, and Solecki
JS (1996), Path-independent H integrals for three-dimensional fracture mechanics, Int. J. Fract. 94, 217–234.