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REVIEW ARTICLES

Use of conventional optical fibers and fiber Bragg gratings for damage detection in advanced composite structures: A review

[+] Author and Article Information
KSC Kuang, WJ Cantwell

Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, L69 3GH, Liverpool, United Kingdom; kuangk@liv.ac.uk

Appl. Mech. Rev 56(5), 493-513 (Aug 29, 2003) (21 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1582883 History: Online August 29, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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Figures

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Cross sections of the CFRP laminate with embedded FBG sensors: a) perpendicular to the loading direction, and b) parallel to the loading direction (after 67 ©2000, with permission from IOP Publishing)
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Real-time measurement of an impact event using embedded FBG sensors (after 126 ©2000, with permission from IOP Publishing)
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Acrylate-coated multi-mode optical fiber (ϕ600 μm) embedded perpendicular to neighboring plies in carbon-fibers epoxy (unpublished results)
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Optical fiber configurations used by Jensen et al. (after 145 ©1992, with permission from IOP Publishing)
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Schematic diagram showing the specimen configuration used by Lee et al. (after 153 ©1995, with permission from Elsevier)
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Typical DCB load-displacement profile for optical fibers placed in the a) 0° and b) 90° direction (after 156)
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Schematic of test configuration showing the arrangement of optical fibers in a test panel (after 43)
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Schematic diagram of a fiber optic damage monitoring system (after 44)
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a) Monitored image containing 19 fibers, b) the same image as a, but 2 fibers were broken, and c) result of the image subtraction b−a (after 44)
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CFRP specimens (skin and frames) with integrated optical fiber system (after 15) ©1987, with permission from Elsevier). Delamination area results in optical fiber fracture and lost of light transmission.
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Optical fiber treatment process proposed by Glossop as a method of increasing optical fibers fracture sensitivity. The sensitivity was controlled by varying the etching duration (after 47).
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Examples of sensor output before (a) and after (b) an 8J impact on CFRP plate (after 52 ©1988, with permission from IOP Publishing)
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Profile sensor for strain monitoring and impact detection (after 55 ©1997, with permission from IEEE)
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Damage characterization in filament wound tubes using a surface-mounted optical fiber strain sensor before and after an impact of 10J (after 27 ©1997, with permission from IOP Publishing)
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Strain response of three triple profile sensors. Sensors were tensile-tested by attaching them to a micrometer stage (after 56).
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a) Fatigue data for composite test specimen, and b) embedded hard-clad silica fiber fatigue failure. (after 58 ©1990, with permission from Elsevier).
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Schematic illustration of the intensity-based strain sensor (after 21 ©1995, with permission from IOP Publishing): a) No applied strain—the cleaved optical fiber end-faces are butted together, and b) Application of strain results in the separation of the cleaved optical fiber end-faces
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Damage detection techniques using embedded optical fibers (after 69): a) Detection of delamination, and b) detection of cracking
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Specimen for impact test to detect cracking and delamination. The straight and ‘curved’ optical fibers were optimized to detect transverse cracks and delamination respectively (after 70 ©1996, with permission from TMS).
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Load and photodiode outputs as a function of time, obtained in impact test at various impact energies (after 70)
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Relationship between optical power, crack density and strain for type A (unidirectional) and type B (cross-ply) specimens (after 71)
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Quasi-distributed sensing using an array of FBG sensors (after 116)
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A typical transmission spectrum of a multiple FBG sensor array (after 111 ©1999, with permission from IEE)
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a) Development of delaminated regions within a fiber-metal laminate panel, and b) strain data from one of the optical fiber sensors as a function of time (after 125)
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Comparison of a) experimental spectra with b) simulated spectra at various values of tensile strain, showing good agreement between the two (after 67 ©2000, with permission from IOP Publishing)
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Relationship between the spectrum width (FWHM) and crack density (after 67 ©2000, with permission from IOP Publishing)
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Schematic diagram of the test panel used by Bocherens et al. FGB sensor embedded in glass-epoxy composite panel (after 126 ©2000, with permission from IOP Publishing)
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Schematic diagram of crack path observed by Choi et al. (after 156)
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Unidirectional and cross-ply fatigue specimens used by Lee et al. (after 153 ©1995, with permission from Elsevier)
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Fatigue lives of a) unidirectional specimens and b) cross-ply specimens, having different optical fiber configurations (after 153 ©1995, with permission from Elsevier)

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