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REVIEW ARTICLES

Transverse cracking and delamination in cross-ply glass-fiber and carbon-fiber reinforced plastic laminates: Static and fatigue loading

[+] Author and Article Information
Jean-Marie Berthelot

Institut d’Acoustique et de Mécanique, Groupe Composites et Structures Mécaniques, Université du Maine, 72085 Le Mans cedex 9, France, jmberthelot@univ-lemans.fr

Appl. Mech. Rev 56(1), 111-147 (Jan 15, 2003) (37 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1519557 History: Online January 15, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Different mechanisms induced in cross-ply laminates
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Transverse matrix cracking in cross-ply laminates
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Photographs of the development of transverse cracking in [0/90/0] glass-fiber/epoxy laminates at different strain levels 6
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Transverse cracking in glass-fiber specimens with transverse ply thickness of a) 0.75 mm, b) 1.5 mm, and c) 2.6 mm, from 2
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Average crack density as a function of applied stress for glass-fiber specimens with different transverse ply thicknesses (results transposed from 2)
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Transverse crack density as a function of applied stress obtained in the case of [0/90n/0] carbon-fiber laminates 14
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Typical stress-strain curve obtained in the case of a quasi-static test on [0/90/0] glass-fiber/polyester laminates 2
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Stiffness reduction as a function of the crack density for [0/90/0] and [0/906/0] glass-fiber laminates
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Stiffness reduction as a function of the crack density for [0/905/0] and [0/9010/0] carbon-fiber laminates 34
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Transverse matrix cracking and the elementary cell
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Stresses acting on an element of the 90° ply
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The interlaminar model
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Variation of the longitudinal stress σxx through the thickness of [0/902/0] laminates, for different values of the cracking aspect ratio: a) a=25,b) a=5,c) a=2.5,d) a=1
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Variation of the longitudinal stress σxx through the thickness of [0/902/02] laminates, for different values of the cracking aspect ratio: a) a=25,b) a=5,c) a=2.5,d) a=1
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Variation of the average longitudinal stress σ̄xx90 in the 90° ply along the length of [0/902/0] laminates, for two values of the cracking aspect ratio: a) a=25 and b) a=2.5
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Variation of the interlaminar shear stress along the length of [0/902/0] glass-fiber laminates, for a cracking aspect ratio equal to 5
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Stiffness reduction for [0/906/0] glass-fiber/epoxy laminates
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Stiffness reduction for [0/904/0] carbon-fiber/epoxy laminates
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Variation of crack density as a function of average longitudinal stress applied to carbon-fiber/epoxy laminates, for different stackings: a) [0/902/0],b) [0/903/0], and c) [0/904/0]
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Variation of crack density as a function of average longitudinal stress applied to glass-fiber/epoxy laminates
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Effective flaw distributions in the transverse ply of a cross-ply laminate 13
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The energy release rate as a function of flaw size 13
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The energy release rate retention factor as a function of the distance between the flaw and the first crack 13
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Introduction of a crack C between two existing cracks
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Crack density as a function of the stress applied to [0/906/0] glass-fiber laminates 19
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Comparison between prediction and experiment for progressive cracking in carbon-fiber laminates 19
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Example of a crack distribution a) and the corresponding variation b) of the average longitudinal stress in the 90° ply along the laminate length, estimated in the case of [0/90/0] glass/epoxy laminates 69
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Progression of transverse cracking for three levels of the longitudinal strain and the stress-strain curve, estimated in the case of [0/90/0] glass/epoxy laminates 62
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Examples of strength distributions in the transverse ply with different values of the scatter interval
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The crack density as a function of the average stress applied to [0/904/0] carbon-fiber/epoxy laminates 69
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Strength distribution including weakness areas
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The crack density as a function of the average stress applied to [0/906/0] glass-fiber/epoxy laminates
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Interlaminar model with both transverse cracks and delaminations
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Elementary cell with both transverse cracks and delaminations
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Stress variations in [0/906/0] laminate for a cracking aspect ratio equal to 7.5 (a=7.5):a) variation of the average longitudinal stress σ̄xx0 in the 0° ply along the length, b) variation of the average longitudinal stress σ̄xx90 in the 90° ply along the length, c) variation of the interlaminar shear stress τ along the length, d) variation of the average longitudinal stress σxx through the thickness 85
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Curves relating the crack density as a function of the average stress applied to [0/906/0] glass-fiber/epoxy laminates, obtained for different values of the shear strength at the interface between the 0° and 90° plies and for a nominal value of the friction stress in delaminated parts equal to 10 MPa 69
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Curves relating the crack density as a function of the average stress applied to [0/906/0] glass-fiber/epoxy laminates, obtained for different values of the friction stress in delaminated parts and for a nominal value of the shear strength at the interface between the 0° and 90° plies equal to 40 MPa 69
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Adjustment of the results derived from the modeling with the experimental results in the case of [0/906/0] glass-fiber/epoxy laminates 69
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Variation of the length of individual transverse cracks as function of the cycle number, observed by Boniface and Ogin 93 for σmax=95 MPa and R=0.1
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Crack distributions obtained for [03/90/04]s and [07/90]s carbon-fiber laminates, after 10,000 cycles
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Typical distribution of transverse cracks during fatigue loading
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The elementary cell in the case of regularly spaced cracks of length lc through the specimen width
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Dividing the test specimen into bands through its width
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Evolution of the fatigue stress at a point of the 90° ply, during the development of transverse cracking
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Evaluation of the number of cracks initiated on one edge of a test specimen
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Propagation of transverse cracking through the specimen width
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Development of transverse cracking derived from the simulation, for a maximum fatigue stress equal to 95 MPa 108
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Development of transverse cracking derived from the simulation, for a maximum fatigue stress equal to 140 MPa 108

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